Chapter-14 Pertaining to Economy
1. The basic duty of an Islamic State, as
ordained in the Holy Quran is provision of 'ZAKAAT'. Thus it is said:
(22:41) "Those Mu'mineen are the people who if We grant
them rule in the land, establish the way of life consistent with the Divine Laws
and provide 'Zakaat'", means to provide 'Zakaat'. Thus the providing of Zakaat
is the duty of an Islamic State. 'Zakaat' means the providing of the means of
nourishment. As such it becomes incumbent upon the Islamic State to provide
means of nourishment to the individuals, which includes both nourishment of the
body as well as of the human potentialities. Thus it becomes the duty of an
Islamic State to make such arrangements that the fulfillment of the basic
necessities of life of each individual shall keep going, and also that their
potentialities may develop. This is called 'Rabubiyyat' (providing of
sustenance). The 'Rabubiyyat' of the entire universe is an attribute of Allah.
(1:1) make the beginning of the Quranic text. But the
practical application of this attribute of Allah, in the human world, takes its
practical manifestation through the agency of an Islamic State. Thus all the
responsibilities, in this respect, which Allah has taken upon Himself, are
fulfilled by the Islamic State.
2. Based on this principle, it becomes the responsibility of an
Islamic State that no living object (human beings; may also include animals,
[Lughat-ul-Quran Root: Ray-Bay-Bay] in its domain, remains devoid of
(11:6) is Allah's commandment, which means that there is
no moving creature* on earth, but its sustenance is the responsibility of Allah.
In this respect the State becomes responsible to its individuals and their
progeny for the fulfillment of their daily necessities of life; and tells them:
(17:31) "We are responsible for your sustenance and that
of your offsprings."
3. The Islamic social order takes shape by means of a contract
between the State and the individuals living in its domain. In this contract,
the life and property of the believers are placed at the disposal of the state
and in lieu of it, becomes the responsibility of the state to provide a life of
peace and plenty (life of Jannat) to the individuals:
(9:111) "The Mu'mineen (those who profess Eemaan-belief in
Allah) and the Divine Order enter into a treaty; the Mu'mineen place their
persons and their wealth at the disposal of the Divine Order (sell them) and the
Divine Order guarantees a life of peace and plenty (life of Paradise) for them
In this life of Paradise are included all the basic necessities of life, food,
clothing, shelter etc. The Quran has introduced to us the paradisiacal life as
(20:118-119) "There is therein (enough provision) for you
not to go hungry, nor to go naked, nor to suffer from thirst from the sun's
heat". (Everything mentioned above is available without any undue labour).
4. In this society every individual retains for himself the
proceeds of his labour according to his needs and gives over the rest of it for
fulfilling the needs of others:
(2:219) "(O Rasool!) They ask you as to how much (of their
earnings) should they keep open for fulfilling the needs of the others; tell
them whatever is over and above their (genuine) needs (16:71)". This system
shall be established through the agency of the State; because the Rasoole has
(7:199) "Get the surplus from them". (This is the natural
result of the above said treaty covenant _ therefore the question of taking by
force does not arise). Those who earn less than their needs, or those who are
not capable of putting in labour, do not take it by way of charity but they
claim it as a matter of their right, from the collected surplus:
(51:19) "In their wealth and possessions is the recognised
right of the needy and the disabled."
5. According to the Economic System of the Quran, wealth cannot
be accumulated. A severe warning has been given against accumulating wealth:
(9:34-35) "O Rasool! These priests and monks, and their
followers who (in the guise of their self-made 'Shariat') consider the system of
capitalism as the will of Allah, and thus hoard heaps of gold and silver and do
not make them available to the usage of humanity, announce unto them a grievous
penalty. During the period of Divine System, these will be heated in the fire of
Jahannam (hell), heat will be produced out of that wealth and with it their
foreheads will be branded, their flanks and their backs: and this fire shall
mount to their hearts (104:6-7): They shall be told, this is the treasure you
had hoarded for yourself, so now taste (the treasure) you had buried.
Wealthy cannot be allowed to circulate wealth amongst themselves alone:
6. To meet emergent needs, it is necessary for the people that
whatever they have retained for their own requirements, they shall also donate
something out of it. This is known as 'Sadaqaat'. This will also not be an
individual affair; it shall be carried out under the System of the State. Thus
the Rasoole was ordained:
(9:103) "Take their donations (out of their earnings) and
in association with other members, make arrangements for their education which
would purify them (by removing all doubts from their minds) and nourish them. As
they grow in their qualities, you should applaud them because your applause will
certainly bring them peace of mind. Allah is All-Hearing and All-Knowing."
In some cases the avenues of usage of such emergency needs have been prescribed
by the Quran itself, when it is said:
(9:60) "About 'Sadaqaat' i.e. wealth which the state
spends for public welfare, it ought to be understood that its distribution shall
not mean personal benefit or satisfaction of the individual emotions, but it is
the right of those:
a) Who depend on others for their nourishment i.e. those who, for some reason,
are not able to earn themselves
b) Whose business somehow or other comes to a standstill.
c) For the remuneration of those who are entrusted with the duty of collecting
'Sadaqaat' (the source of state revenue).
d) Whose consolation of hearts' is required. It means that those people who are
prepared to join the Divine System but some impediments do not allow them to
take this course; they should be helped in the removal of these impediments.
e) To get freedom for those fastened to the chains of other's captivity
f) To help those who are under the enemy's debt or penalty, and cannot manage to
pay it off on their own.
g) Also the wayfarers who are in need of money.
h) In addition to the above, anything conducive and helpful to the general
welfare of humanity by the Divine System.
Described above are the codes laid down by Allah based on knowledge and wisdom.
In this verse the item of 'in the Divine Cause' is very comprehensive. It
includes all other avenues of usage, which the Islamic State deems necessary.
Note: Amongst us the above items are known as items of Zakaat expenditure. This
is not correct. The Quran has clearly described them as item of 'Sadaqaat' and
not of 'Zakaat'. Even the prevalent concept of 'Zakaat' itself is different from
the Quranic concept.
7. Earth (Land) is the basic source of production. Because an
Islamic State has the momentous responsibility of provision of 'Zakaat' to
fulfil, therefore this basic source of production (the land) cannot remain in
the ownership of individuals. Land remains under the charge of the State, so
that the needs of the individuals may get equally fulfilled. In Surah Haa-Meem
Sajdah (41st Chapter of the Quran) it is said:
(41:10) "He set on the earth mountains standing firm,
standing high above its surface, (which serve as means of water supply) and gave
it the capability to produce different items and with the change of four seasons
standardised** its produce correctly, for feeding its inhabitants. (39:67) and
Note: It has been clarified at several places in the Quran, that the earth has
been created to fulfil the requirements of humanity. As an all-encompassing
explanation of this topic is not intended in this book, therefore it is not
considered quoting all the relevant references, however, see verses (55:10);
8. In the Economic System of Islam (except those who are
disabled) only that person has the right to receive who puts in labour:
(53:39) "That a man can have nothing, but what he strives
for", is its basic principle. As described earlier under the heading 'usury',
any profit on the capital is totally unlawful and amounts to declaration of war
against Allah and the Divine System of His Rasool. As a matter of fact, the
question of profit on capital does not arise when nothing surplus to the needs
is left with anybody."
To interpret the word as (Arba' Ayyaam) change of four seasons is not
comprehensive. Following is the full explanation. The terms (Arba' Ayyaam) and
(Umeen) are specific Quranic terms. They represent the Six Eras of Evolution in
the creation of heavens and the Earth.
9. As said earlier in item (4) above, in the Islamic Order
surplus wealth is not left with any person. Thus the question of raising
personal property does not arise, which includes land, wealth, industry, trade,
etc. Everything remains in the custody of the State, so that the needs of every
individual get fulfilled and their standard of living goes on rising, and then
eventually this system, surpassing its boundaries, extends to embrace humanity
10. It shall be the duty of an Islamic State to establish such
an economic system in the light of this basic guidance of the Holy Quran which
can satisfy all the requisites of 'Rabubiyyat', so that nourishment is neither
held back from anybody, nor his dignity is injured. This system shall gradually
come into force. The Quranic injunctions relating to charity, inheritance, etc.
are of transitory nature for the period in which this system is still taking
shape and is not yet finalised. This also ought to be kept in mind that this
system shall be established by those who consider it a part of their belief and
yearning of their hearts. This is the motive force for its establishment and
stability. In the absence of such a driving force, a system of this kind can
neither get established, no can it survive.
* It happens doubtful to assume that an Islamic
State can take up the responsibility of providing nourishment to moving
creatures, such as dogs and reptiles in its domain. (Abdul Wadud).
(2 ERAS [Umain in Arabi translation]
"So He completed them as several heavens in 2 Eras (41:12)"
Thus (Umain) 2 ERAS -- includes the evolutionary period involved in the Creation
of the heavens and the earth.
On earth the period without life lasted for 3000 million years and science calls
it the Azoic Period.
[4 ERAS (Arba-e-Ayyaam)]
"He made on the earth mountains standing high above it and bestowed blessings on
it and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion in
four Eras" (41:10)
In these four Eras, life began on earth and gradually got evolved and this has
lasted for 2000 millions years:
(a) Precambrian Eras 1500 million years
(b) Paleozoic Era or Ancient life -- 300 million years
(c) Nezozoic Era or Middle life -- 130 millions years
(d) Cainozoic or Modern life -- started 75 million years ago.