SURAH 4: An-Nisā'
O humanity! adhere to the Laws of your Sustainer
Who initiated your creation with a single
life-cell (6/99, 39/6) which split into two
parts – one male and the other female – and
through them spread so many men and women in the
(It is thus
clear from this example that the origin of
mankind is one and the same and therefore
subsequent man-made divisions have no
justification. You consider entire humanity as
one entity) and follow the Laws of Niz’am-e-Rabubiyyat,
through which all those necessities of yours are
fulfilled for which you seek each other’s
assistance (14/34). The first step, while
establishing this Niz’am, would be
with your own kith and kin (and then keep on
expanding the circle, till the entire community
comes inside) and if you succeed in doing this,
you will see how Allah’s Laws continue in
keeping watch over you!
To begin with, if those persons who are alone in
society e.g. orphans, come under your
guardianship, you should make over to them what
belongs to them. Do not substitute worthless
stuff for what is valuable. Do not consume their
property by amalgamating it with your own. This
is a serious crime.
But the problem of orphans (or those left alone
in the society) is not solved simply by taking
care of their property – it has other
implications as well. For instance, if a
situation arises, out of a war or otherwise –
where a large number of men die, leaving behind
widows and orphans, or you have a large number
of marriageable women who cannot find husbands
(4/127) and they cannot marry outside your
circle; so if you cannot find an equitable
solution to this problem then permission is
hereby given to you to relax the Law of monogamy
and those amongst you who can afford it and can
treat all justly can marry two or three or four
women of their liking. But if you fear that you
cannot do justice, then only one or the female
captives who are already in your charge. This
will relieve you from the burden of a large
Give your wives their dower willingly since they
have a right to it (4/20). If they forego a part
of it out of their own free will, then you may
utilise it as you like.
Wealth is the mainstay of a nation, so take good
care of it. And do not entrust to those who are
immature and of weak understanding, the
possessions which Allah has placed in
your charge for their support, but let them have
their sustenance and clothe them, give them good
education and explain to them in a gentle way
why their property is not being returned to
With regards to the orphans in your care,
ascertain if they are of sound understanding. If
so, hand over their property to them when they
attain the age of marriage. Thinking that you
may have to return the property of orphans to
them after a short time, do not devour it or
expend it wastefully. Those who have means
should not charge anything for their stewardship
and those who are in need may charge a fair and
reasonable sum. When you are going to return the
property of orphans to them, call witnesses and
keep in mind that you are accountable to
As regards the distribution of inheritance, men
have a share in what their parents and nearest
kin have left, and women also have a share in
what their parents and nearest kin have left,
whether it be little or much. This is their
At the time of the distribution of inheritance
if some relatives, orphans or those in want (who
have no legal share in the inheritance) are
present, give them something out of kindness and
speak to them gently.
Those who are responsible for the distribution
of inheritance should do so strictly in
accordance with Allah’s Laws. They should
keep in mind how they would feel if, in case of
their death, someone were to treat their
helpless dependants unjustly: therefore speak to
them in straight, clear and proper language.
Those who devour the property of orphans
unjustly, fill their bellies with fire which
will burn them into ashes.
Now Allah explains to you the Laws of
The portion of a son
is equal to the portion of two daughters,
If there are two or
more daughters, they shall have together 2/3rds
of the inheritance,
If there is only one
daughter, her share shall be one half of the
The father and mother
of the deceased shall each have one-sixth of the
inheritance, if he left children,
If the deceased left
no children and his parents alone are the heirs,
his mother shall have one-third (and his father
two-thirds) of the inheritance, but if he left
brothers or sisters along with his parents, his
mother shall have one-sixth of the inheritance.
(The shares of his brothers and sisters are
determined under 12(3).
distribution of inheritance, in all cases, is
after the provisions of the deceased’s will have
been fulfilled and his debts have been paid.
Allah has appointed these shares because you
could not know who amongst the inheritors of the
deceased are deserving and to what extent.
Certainly Allah is All-Knowing, Wise.
You shall have
one-half of what your wives leave behind if they
leave no child, but if they leave a child, you
shall have one-fourth of what they have left
behind. This is after the provisions of the
deceased’s will have been fulfilled and her
debts have been paid.
Your wives shall have
one-fourth of what you have left behind, if you
have no child, but if you have child, they shall
have one-eighth of what you leave behind, after
the provisions of your will have been fulfilled
and your debts have been paid.
If the deceased leaves
no children and his heirs are parents and
brothers and sisters*, then:-
In case there is one
brother and one sister, each of them gets
one-sixth of the inheritance,
in case there are more
than two then together they will get one-third
of the inheritance.
This is after the provisions
of the deceased’s will have been fulfilled and
his debts have been paid.
distribution of the inheritance should be in
such a way that no loss is caused to anyone.
This is an injunction from Allah, Who
knows ALL and is not carried away by emotions.
These are the limits set by Allah.
Whoever obeys Allah’s System will be
admitted to gardens where streams flow to abide
therein. This will be a great achievement**.
Whosoever disobeys Allah’s System and
transgresses the limits prescribed by Him, will
be thrown into hell to abide therein and lead a
life of great degradation.
If any of your women commit indecency, take the
evidence of four witnesses from amongst
yourselves. If they are proven guilty, restrict
their movement by confining them to their houses
for life or until Allah opens out a way
If two men from amongst you are found guilty of
something similar, punish them. But if they
repent and make amends, then leave them alone.
The Divine System makes room for repentance and
thereafter the restoration of the means of
Repentance (Taubah) is only accepted from
those who do something wrong in ignorance and
repent immediately thereafter: for Allah
is All-Knowing, Wise.
Of no avail is the repentance
(Taubah) of those who persist in wrong
doing until they are confronted by death and
they say: “Now we have repented indeed.” These
people as well as those who die in the state of
Kufr will suffer a most grievous
O Jama’at-ul-Momineen, you cannot
marry women against their will and become their
master instead of their companion. Do not treat
them harshly in order to appropriate a part of
their dower unless they are guilty of open
indecency. (The matter will, of course, be
decided by the proper authority.) On the
contrary, live with them honourably. If you
dislike something about them do not resolve
immediately to separate from them. It is
possible that something you dislike may bring
about abundant good for you.
If you intend to marry
another woman in place of your present wife and
you have given the latter a whole treasure as
dower you should not take back even a portion of
it. You should not slander her or accuse her of
open wrong in order to compel her to surrender a
part of her dower. How can you do that when your
wives have taken a solemn covenant from you, and
you also have enjoyed marital relations with
Marry not women whom your fathers had married.
What is past is past, but this was a very
shameful, indecent, and abominable custom
Forbidden to you in marriage are:
of your wives
step-daughters, who have been brought up
under your guardianship and are born of
wives with whom you have had marital
relations. If you have not had marital
relations, then the prohibition does not
12 Wives of
your real sons.
13 It is
also prohibited to have in marriage two
sisters at the same time.
However, what is past is
past. Allah overlooks your shortcomings,
but remember that the protection and nourishment
of your personality can only be, if you follow
Also forbidden to you in marriage are those
women who are already married except those whom
you already possess.
These are the
these women, all others are lawful for you in
marriage provided you pay them their dower and
marry them for the purpose of leading a conjugal
life and not for the mere satisfaction of your
lust. Pay the dower to the women whom you take
into marriage. By mutual agreement, the original
dower may be altered.
Laws are based upon knowledge and wisdom.
Whoever amongst you cannot afford to marry a
free believing woman, may marry a believing
woman who is a captive. If you marry a captive
woman, do not treat her as an inferior (because
once she accepts Islam and marries you, she is
at par with others). Allah knows all
about your Ei’man (and Ei’man
is the only consideration for distinction,
otherwise) the one of you is as the other. Marry
captive women with the permission of their
custodians and pay them their appropriate
dowers. If you marry these women, marry them for
the purpose of leading a conjugal life and not
for the mere satisfaction of your lust. Do not
have a secret relationship with them.
women are guilty of adultery, after they have
entered into wedlock, their punishment is
one-half that of free believing women***
marry captive women is given only to those men
who fear that they might falter if they remain
unmarried but it is better for them if they
practise continence (24/33). Remember Allah
is the Protector and Raheem.
These Family Laws have been
explained to you in detail and with clarity
because they pertain not only to individuals but
also have great impact upon the life of nations.
The history of earlier nations testifies to this
– those who obeyed these Laws led blissful lives
while those who disobeyed them were ruined.
Allah is All-Knowing, Wise.
wants that you should be protected from such
ruin. Lewdness and indecency are prevalent in
the present society and people who act thus
would like you to drift away from the right path
and become like them.
wants to lighten your burdens. He knows that if
your emotions are not channeled by means of the
Divine Laws and you are left to yourselves then
you would be overpowered by your emotions, which
would result in destruction and there would be
chaos in the society. Limitations are essential
to control the emotions.
do not devour each other’s wealth unlawfully.
You will destroy each other that way whereas
Allah desires the nourishment of all of you.
But if you defy Allah’s Laws, it would be
tantamount to zulm which brings about
society’s ruin according to the Law of Mukaf’at.
This can happen very easily.
Trade by mutual
agreement is the proper way for exchanging
Should you abstain from the serious crimes which
you have been forbidden to commit, it will save
your society from chaos and you will lead an
The earning capacity of individuals differs but
each person should strive hard to increase his
or her capacity to earn. Men shall have what
they earn and women shall have whatever they
earn. Allah has knowledge of all things.
Men and women own not only what they earn but
also have their prescribed shares in inheritance
as explained earlier (4/12-13). In distribution
of inheritance contractual relatives have
precedence over blood relatives. Truly Allah
is witness to all things.
As stated earlier, women own what they earn but
due to biological reasons, they are
incapacitated for considerable periods of time,
to earn a living. Due to this fact it is obvious
and natural that the responsibility for
maintaining the family is vested in men. When
women are given such protection then they must
fulfill their functions as women faithfully and
safeguard their potentialities.
notwithstanding all this, those in authority
apprehend defiance on the part of women with
regards to the performance of their natural
functions, they should, in order to correct such
a behaviour, first admonish the women, then, if
required, separate them temporarily from their
husbands, or intern them, and finally, if
necessary, punish them otherwise. Allah’s
Laws must prevail. If they submit to them then
seek no occasion against them.
The above directive concerns men and women in
general. As regards husbands and wives, if you
apprehend a breach between the couple, then the
concerned authority should constitute a board of
arbitration consisting of two members, one from
the husband’s family and the other from the
wife’s. If they want to reach a settlement then
appropriate reconciliation should be effected
between the couple. Surely, Allah is the
knowing and apprised of everything. (If a
settlement cannot be reached then divorce is to
be resorted to for which directives have been
Next, comes the matter of relatives other than
spouses. In dealing with them, Allah’s
Laws must be adhered to strictly and no man-made
Laws should be mixed with them.
these Laws, you should do good to:
others in need,
irrespective of whether they are your relatives
wayfarers who stand in
need of your help and,
those in your charge
or those who work under you.
does not like those who are proud and boastful.
These people are those who try to keep as much
as possible for themselves. They bid others to
do likewise and try to keep hidden whatever
bounty Allah has given them. For such
ungrateful people Allah has prepared a
As regards those who spend for the sake of
making a show and do not believe in Allah
and the Hereafter, Shait’an
becomes their companion. What a dreadful
companion he is!
If these people had believed in Allah and
the Hereafter and spent in the cause of Allah
instead of their own glory, what harm would have
come to them? Surely Allah has full
knowledge of them.
Allah does not lessen aught from the
compensation given to those who spend in His
Cause, but doubles the compensation of His own
Those who act hypocritically think that their
hypocrisy will remain unknown. Ask them what
their situation would be when they are
confronted by a meeting of representatives from
each group presided over by the Rasool.
Those people who were bent upon denying the
truth and also paid no heed to the Rasool’s
directives would wish that they had been
levelled to the ground so that their hypocrisy
had remained veiled, but nothing shall remain
concealed from Allah!
In order to establish Quranic Order,
congregational meetings of Sal’at
are necessary. O Jama’at-ul-Momineen
do not come to such an assembly:
With a befogged mind
when you do not understand what you say ****;
Until you have washed
yourselves if you have had sexual intercourse,
except when you do not participate in the
meeting but simply pass by it;
If you cannot wash
yourself due to sickness when water is harmful
When you are on a
journey; or you have returned from a call of
nature and water is not available or you have
touched a woman.
In these cases
you can clean yourselves by using soil and wipe
your hands and face. Such a relaxation is given
by Allah Who is lenient and protective.
Have you pondered over the case of those who
were earlier given a part of the Code (and now
with the revelation of the Quran, the
whole message is complete). (Instead of
accepting the whole truth) they are adopting the
wrong path and wish that you should also go off
the right track.
Allah knows who your enemies are but you
need not be afraid of them. Allah is
Sufficient for you as guard and helper.
Amongst the Jews there are some who pervert the
words of their scriptures and while talking to
you use homonymous language. For instance,
instead of saying Sam’aina wa ata’ina
(i.e. we have heard what you have said and we
will obey) they will say Sam’aina wa
’asa’ina (i.e. we have heard but we
will not obey or you listen to us, though you
would not be listened to and they say Ra’aina
– by twisting their tongues. Their intention is
to scoff at your Deen (2/104)). If they
had been well intentioned and had said in clear
words, “we have heard what you have said and we
will obey” or “please hear what we say and pay
it due regard,” this would have been better and
more befitting for them. But they will not
follow this path and will deprive themselves of
Allah’s Blessings. This is why only a few
of them have accepted this Deen.
Ask these Ahl-ul-Kit’ab to believe
in what Allah has revealed which
validates the claims made in their scriptures,
before there is a confrontation in which they
will suffer a crushing defeat and be defaced
beyond recognition, being cast away from
Allah as the Sabbath-breakers were (2/65).
This will certainly come to pass.
If anyone falters due to ignorance or error, the
possibility of being protected from the
ill-consequences of his action exists. But it is
impossible for those who accept the authority of
others alongside Allah to secure this
protection. He who has set up a peer to Allah
has indeed committed a grievous calumny (Shirk).
Have you not taken note of
those who consider themselves very pure and
pious? Purity and piety can be achieved only by
following the Laws of Allah and in that
process none shall be wronged a whit. These
people invent lies about Allah and this,
in itself, is an obvious crime.
Have you not marked those who
were given a portion of the Book but they follow
self-made rituals and obey authorities which
they have set up alongside Allah? They
say that the K’afireen are better
guided than the Momineen. They deprive
themselves of Allah’s Blessings. Those
who are thus deprived can have no helper.
It is fortunate that people with this mentality
do not have worldly power. If they had any share
in it they would not have given even a farthing
to their fellow men.
The reason for their attitude is that they are
envious of those to whom Allah has
bestowed His bounties. Allah had given
the people of Abraham not only the revealed Code
of life but also wisdom and had conferred upon
them a great kingdom.
Some of them believed in
Allah and some of them turned away from Him.
For the latter, the life of hell is
Tell those who
discredit Our Laws, that they will be ruined.
Gathering all their forces they will come to the
battlefield and be defeated. They will again
amass their forces and return to the
battle-field and be defeated again. Surely,
Allah is mighty and wise.
will achieve success after success because as a
result of following Allah’s Laws, they
possess both power and vision.) They will be
admitted into gardens in which streams flow and
where there is a deep shade, to abide therein
forever. There they shall have companions of
pure and sublime character.
In order to establish the Quranic System,
it is necessary to entrust responsibility to
those who are capable of discharging it. All
matters should be decided justly. This is
excellent counsel which Allah is giving
you for Allah hears and sees all.
O Jama’at-ul-Momineen you should
obey the System established by the Rasool
in accordance with Allah’s Laws, and obey
the local authorities appointed by this Order.
In case of a dispute with the local officers, an
appeal can be made to the Order (the Central
Government). This will constitute evidence that
you believe in Allah and the Hereafter.
This is the best and fairest way to reach a
This is the way of the true Momineen. On
the other hand, you will find people who assert
that they believe in what has been revealed to
you and what was revealed before but desire to
take their disputes to authorities other than
Allah although they were asked to reject
such authorities. Indeed it is Shait’an
who leads them astray.
When these Mun’afiqeen are asked
that they should refer their disputes to the
Divine Order, they turn away in disgust.
When they are seized by some calamity which they
have brought upon themselves they come to you (O
Rasool,) swearing by Allah that
they had gone to authorities other than Allah
in good faith and to create harmony.
They are liars and Allah knows what they
say and what they conceal. Stay clear of them
but continue to give them good counsel which
reaches their heart.
Deen is not an abstract ideology or mere
theoretical values. It is a practical way of
living, a collective life. For this purpose an
order or system is essential. This is why
Allah has sent a Rasool along with
revelation. The responsibility of the Rasool
is to establish that Order. Obedience to
Allah is through obedience to the Rasool.
For example, if anyone falters, he is required
to go to the Rasool to seek forgiveness.
The Rasool cannot decide the matter in
his personal capacity. He will decide it in
accordance with Allah’s Laws. In Deen
this is the procedure for securing forgiveness
Allah stands witness that these persons
cannot claim to be Momineen until they
make you (O Rasool) the judge in their
disputes and thereafter do not find any vexation
in their hearts over what you decide, and submit
to your decisions wholeheartedly.
Those who do not accept
Deen in this way, if asked to leave their
homes or go to the battlefield for the cause of
Allah, will not do so, excepting a few.
If they had done what Allah had
counselled them to do, it would have been better
for them and their Ei’man would
have become more firm. Allah has surely
given them a great reward and guided them to the
If they had obeyed the Divine
Order they would have joined the caravan of
those following the straight path whom Allah
had blessed. In the caravan, led by Anbia,
would be those who validate their Ei’man
by action, those who safeguard the system
vigilantly, and S’aliheen. How
blessed and pleasant is this company! Such is
the bounty from Allah and it is
sufficient that Allah knows all.
In order to safeguard the System you should take
every precaution. When you go to war you can
advance in detachments or altogether as may seem
There are certainly among you those who will lag
behind. If any misfortune befalls you they will
say: “It was Allah’s favour to us in that
we were not present with you.”
But if success comes to you they are sure to say
as if they had never been amongst you before:
“How well it would have been if we were with
them; we could also have shared in their gains
The fact is that only they can fight in the
cause of Allah who barter the life of the
present for the life to come. Whether they are
slain in battle or come back victorious,
Allah will give them a great reward in the
War in the cause of Allah is for the help
of oppressed people. Allah helps
oppressed people through human agency and not
directly. This is illustrated by the following:
In Al-Madina, the Momineen had
established their own state but those who could
not leave Makkah were greatly oppressed.
They cried to Allah for help and Allah
said to the Momineen in Al-Madina:
“What has happened to you that you do not fight
in the cause of Allah? Do you not hear
the cries of the helpless men, women and
children in Makkah who entreat Allah:
“O our Rabb! rescue us from this city
whose inhabitants are oppressors. Send us
someone who will protect and defend us”
This is fighting in Allah’s cause which
is undertaken by the Momineen. On the
contrary, the K’afireen fight for
the cause of ungodly authorities. So, O Jama’at-ul-Momineen,
you should fight the friends of Shait’an.
Mark! the cunning of Shait’an
In the initial phase of the establishment of the
system of Sal’at and
the programme was only concerned with teaching
and training with no occasion for confrontation.
During this phase, these people were very
enthusiastic, but when fighting was required of
them, a group from amongst them became very
fearful and said to Allah: “ Why have You
enjoined war upon us? Could You not postpone it
for a while?” Tell them: O Rasool! “very
little is the enjoyment of this world and the
future is all good for those who have lived
according to the Laws of Allah. They will
never be dealt with unjustly,” in the very
Also tell them: “Death is
sure to overtake you wherever you may be even
though you may be in strong towers.”
is such that if something good happens to them
they say: “This is from Allah,” but if
any evil betides them they say, “It is because
of you, O Rasool.”
Say to them O
Rasool “If you want to understand the
correct position, I will explain it to you.” The
fact is that everything in the universe happens
in accordance with Allah’s Laws. If you
act according to these Laws the results will be
good and if you act contrary to these Laws you
will bring about your misfortune. Good and evil
do not come from the Rasool. His function
is only to communicate to you the Laws of
Allah and to establish an Order based on
them. Obedience to Allah’s Laws will be
through this Order. It is up to you whether you
obey these Laws or not. If you turn away from
them it will not be for the Rasool to
compel you to obey them. You will face the
consequences of your actions yourselves.
Amongst them there are people who profess to
obey you O Rasool, but when they meet
together at night they plot against what you had
said – Allah records their plots. You
should keep clear of them and put your trust in
Allah Who is All-Sufficient as a
Do they not reflect upon the Quran? Were
it from anyone other than Allah they
would have found many inconsistencies therein.
These people are not habituated to a disciplined
life. Whenever they hear any news of peace or
danger they broadcast it directly. Had they
brought the news to the notice of the Rasool
or the local authority, those who have been
charged with the responsibility of scrutinising
news would have found out the truth. Were it not
for Allah’s goodness towards you, the
majority amongst you would have followed
O Rasool, you should fight in the cause
of Allah, for you are not responsible
except for yourself. You should train the
Momineen to enable them to fight. The time
will soon come when the onslaught of the K’afireen
will be checked. Allah is the stronger in
power and the stronger to restrain them.
As already stated, you will implement your
programme depending on yourself alone. If anyone
stands by you he will have share in the good
results which accrue and if anyone stands by
your opponents he will have share in the evil
consequences which follow. Allah is the
dispenser of all things.
If you receive life-giving help from someone you
must repay in the like measure if not more.
Allah takes account of all things.
Whether anyone stands by you or not, you should
remain firm in your conviction that power and
authority in the entire universe belong to
Allah alone. The confrontation between truth
and falsehood will certainly take place. There
is no doubt about this. Whose word can be more
true than Allah?
There should be no difference of opinion
regarding the Mun’afiqeen whom
Allah has cast away for their actions. Do
you desire to bring back to the right path those
who have intentionally taken up the wrong path?
As long as the latter are determined to follow
the wrong path none can guide them.
You desire to bring them to
the right path but their effort is that they
should make you K’afireen like
themselves so that you would be on their level.
Do not take any of them for friends until they
forsake their homes in the cause of Allah.
If they turn traitor, seize them and slay them
whenever you find them. Mark again! do not take
any of them for friends and helpers except those
who have taken asylum with a people with whom
you have an alliance or those who come over to
you saying: “We wish to remain neutral.” The
fact is that if the latter had sufficient power
they would have fought you. Nevertheless, if
they come to you professing to be neutral you
should accept their offer of peace and should
not proceed against them.
Amongst them there are those who profess
neutrality but if there is a call from their
people to join them in creating disorder, they
plunge into the mischief-making. If they neither
withdraw from you nor give you a guarantee for
peace or restrain their hands, seize them and
slay them wherever you find them. You have a
clear sanction from Allah against them.
A Momin would never kill another Momin
except by mistake. If he kills another Momin
by mistake he should set free a believing slave
and pay blood-money to the family of the
deceased unless they forego it as an act of
grace. If the deceased belongs to a people
hostile to you setting free of a slave is
enough. If the deceased belongs to a people with
whom you have an alliance, a believing slave
should be freed and blood-money should also be
paid. For one who finds this beyond his means,
he should fast for two consecutive months. His
repentance will be accepted. Allah is
Wise and knows well why He so enjoins.
But whoever kills a Momin with full
intention, his punishment will be as stated in
2/178. He will receive this punishment in this
world. In the life Hereafter his recompense will
be Jahannam to abide in. He will be cast
away by Allah Who will prepare for him a
When you go forth to fight in the cause of
Allah, make sure that you know who your
friends and enemies are. If anyone sends you an
offer of peace do not say to him “you are not
sincere in your offer” and wage war against him.
By this way you may get some spoils of war but
do not forget that whatever you will get by
obeying Allah’s Laws will be much more.
You used to look for such excuses in the
pre-Islam period. Allah has shown you the
right path. You should therefore probe carefully
before taking a decision. Allah is
well-aware of what you do.
When order is given for war,
some amongst the Momineen respond very
enthusiastically and prepare to fight with all
their means and their persons, while others are
rather slow. It is obvious that the former and
the latter cannot be esteemed alike. Allah
will grant a higher place to the former. The
good promise of Allah however extends to
both. The distinction is only in the grant of a
higher reward to some ranks; protection and
means of development are all granted by Allah
according to the measures appointed by Him.
Hijra plays a very important role in the
life of Momineen. Those who are content
to live a wretched and oppressed life in an
ungodly society will be asked by the Malaika
at the time of their death: “Why did you lead
such a wretched life?” They will answer, “We
were weak and helpless.” The Malaika will
then say, “Was not the earth of Allah
vast enough for you to undertake Hijra to
some favourable place”? These people lead a life
of Jahannam in this world and in the
Hereafter also, they will abide in Jahannam.
The exception is those men,
women and children who were truly weak and
unable to seek means of escape and did not know
whither to go. For them there is hope for
leniency from Allah Who is Forbearing and
Whoever undertakes Hijra for the cause of
Allah will find a place of refuge and
plentiful resources. Whoever leaves home to
undertake Hijra to a place where the
Quranic Order is established and is
overtaken by death on the way, will be fully
rewarded by Allah for Allah is the
Protector and the Raheem.
When you set out on a journey and apprehend
danger from your enemy, there is no harm if you
shorten your Sal’at. The K’afireen
are your open enemies.
O Rasool! if you are with your Jama’at
while they are on a march and you arrange their
Sal’at, it should be in the
following manner: “Let a batch of your followers
join in the Sal’at retaining their
arms. When they have done their Sajda let
them retrieve to the rear and let another batch
join the Sal’at. They should,
however, take every precaution and retain their
arms.” Your enemies desire that you should
become inattentive towards your arms and
provisions so that they can fall upon you
suddenly. If due to rain or some other reason it
is not convenient for you to retain your arms
you may set them aside but even then you should
be very watchful of your enemies. There is no
doubt that ultimately your enemies will face a
humiliating defeat, but you have to be very
cautious about them.
When you have finished Sal’at in
this state of insecurity, you should be mindful
of the Code of Divine Law at all times –
sitting, standing or lying down. When you feel
secure, perform your Sal’at in the
regular way. It should be noted that assemblies
of Sal’at are held at appointed
times and participation in these assemblies is
Be prompt in pursuing your enemies in the
battlefield. If you face hardships in war
remember that your enemies also face similar
hardships. In this way you are on the same
footing. However, they cannot aspire for what
you hope from Allah. This assurance is
given to you by Allah Who is indeed
From discussion regarding war
affairs, We now turn to social problems. For
this purpose, O Rasool, We have sent down
to you the Code of Laws based on truth so that
you might judge between people in the light of
what Allah has revealed to you. Do not be
an advocate for those who betray their trust.
Awarding judgement between people is a grave
responsibility and the protection of Divine Laws
must be sought at all times for certainly it is
Allah alone Who is the Protector and the
Do not plead on behalf of those who are false to
themselves or harbour deceit in their hearts for
Allah does not like those who betray
their trust and persist in sinful ways. (They
think that by deceit they have gained something,
whereas they have weakened their Nafs by
such actions, and this in actual fact amounts to
These people can hide their crimes from others
but not from Allah for He is with them
when they hold their nightly conference in
secret to discuss such matters which He does not
approve. Allah’s Law of Mukaf’at
encompasses their entire doings.
Those who plead on behalf of
such people should remember that they can plead
for them in this world but no one will be able
to do so in the Hereafter. None can be their
champion then. Allah’s Law of Mukaf’at
is that whoever wrongs another or himself, shall
have to suffer the consequences thereof, except
those who secure protection through adherence to
Divine Laws, for most certainly you will find
that it is Allah Who is the Protector and
To reiterate: whoever commits a wrong, wrongs
himself. Allah is ever-Knowing, the
If a person commits a crime himself and then
foists it on the innocent, he takes upon himself
the burden of a calumny and a heinous crime.
It is Allah’s favour and Rahmat
that He has sent down to you a Code of Laws,
explained its rationale to you, and given you
knowledge of what you did not know before. Had
it not been for this grace a party of your
enemies who plotted against you to lead you
astray, would have been successful.
Now they can
neither lead you astray nor do you any harm.
They can only lead themselves astray. This is a
great blessing from Allah for you.
These Mun’afiqeen hold secret
consultations but not for a good cause. Their
consultation would be good only if they are to
enjoin contributions for the betterment of
humanity or that which is right and conducive to
promoting goodwill amongst people. Those who do
the above without any ulterior motive shall have
mighty reward and blessings of the highest value
If anyone after receiving such clear guidance,
sets himself up in opposition to the Rasool
or follows any path other than that of the
Momineen, he will become the companion of
those whom he has himself chosen and they will
lead a life of hell and what an evil end of a
There is possibility that the ill-effects of
minor shortcomings may be removed through good
action but no protection is available to those
who commit Shirk. Shirk takes a
person very far away from the right path
Look at the stupidity of
those who commit Shirk that they call
upon lifeless goddesses instead of Allah.
They are indeed motivated by Shait’an,
the castaway, whom Allah had condemned
his having said that, “I will certainly draw to
myself a definite portion of your devotees. I
will mislead them and raise false hopes in them
(that their goddesses will grant them what they
want). I will command them to slit the ears of
cattle and deface Allah’s creation.”
has cast Shait’an away and whoever
takes him for a friend shall suffer a manifest
makes false promises with those who follow him
and raises vain hopes in them. However, his
promises are nothing but, delusion. Hell shall
be the abode of those who are duped by him and
they shall find no escape from it.
Those who believe in Divine Laws and act
accordingly, will be admitted to gardens in
which streams flow to dwell therein forever.
This is a promise from Allah which always
holds good. Whose word can be more true than
Mark it that paradise-like life cannot be
achieved through wishful thinking – be it yours
or that of Ahl-ul-Kit’ab. Whoever
does wrong shall reap the consequence thereof
and shall not find anyone to protect and help
him except Allah.
On the other hand, those – men or women – who
are Momin and do good shall enter
Jannat and not the least injustice will be
done to them.
In view of what has been stated above, ask them
as to which Deen is better than one in
which every individual surrenders to the Laws of
Allah, does good to others, and follows
the path of Abraham, the Haneef Allah
had taken Abraham for a friend.
The Deen referred to above prevails
throughout the universe and encompasses
everything. (A similar Niz’am
should prevail in human society as well.)
A significant part of this Deen relates
to family life concerning which We have already
given you instructions (4/3). Allah
supplements those instructions which relate to
women without husbands, whether widows or
unmarried. You wish to marry these women but
deny their legal dues. It is essential to pay
these dues. Similarly, the dues of orphans and
those who are unprotected in society must be
paid justly. Allah is aware of whatever
good you do.
If circumstances are such that a woman fears
ill-treatment or aversion on her husband’s part,
the two may settle their affairs amicably, for
amicable settlement is always good.
Self-interest is the main hurdle in the way of
such settlement, for human mind is prone to it.
If you also keep the other person’s interest in
view and adhere to Allah’s Laws then this
hurdle may be overcome. Allah is well
aware of what you do.
Permission to marry more than one wife was given
subject to the condition that you hold the
balance evenly amongst the wives (4/3). Allah
knows that it will not be possible for you to
hold this balance absolutely evenly, however
keen you may be to do so. Justice will be
secured if you do not incline towards one wife
in such a way that another is left, as it were,
suspended. If you observe fairness and be
mindful of Allah’s Laws you will secure
protection and nurture from Him.
If the efforts for settlement are unsuccessful
then you may separate in accordance with the
instructions given by Allah (4/35). Do
not let the fear of being left without provision
become a hurdle in separation. The Divine System
will provide for you in abundance. Allah
is Bountiful and Wise.
Everything in the universe is
busily engaged in carrying out Allah’s
plan. His plan should be implemented in the
human sphere similarly. We had enjoined this
upon the people who were given the Book before
you and similarly you also are being enjoined to
be mindful of Allah’s Laws. If you do not
do so, Allah’s Laws will continue to
operate in the universe as they do now. And to
Allah belongs whatever is there in the
heavens and all that is on earth. And Allah
alone is sufficient to carry out His affairs.
If He wills, He could put all humanity away and
bring in some others. Allah has the power
to do this undoubtedly.
Those who desire provisions of this world should
know that if they adhere to Allah’s Laws
they can have provisions of this world as well
as those of the Hereafter, for Allah is
All-Hearing and All-Seeing.
For this purpose justice should prevail. Justice
depends mainly on evidence. O Jama’at-ul-Momineen,
if you are called upon to give evidence, do not
appear as a witness on behalf of either party,
but for Allah. Be truthful in giving
evidence even though it be against your
own-selves or your parents and kin-folk, whether
the party concerned be rich or poor. Allah
safeguards the interests of both parties. Do not
follow your own inclinations lest you should
swerve from justice. Do not foist your
statements nor show aversion to appearing as a
witness. Allah is well aware of what you
136 O you who
profess to believe! hold fast unto your belief
in Allah, His Rusul, the Book
which He has sent to this Rasool, and
those which He had sent earlier. He who denies
Allah, His Malaika, His Books, His
Rusul and the Hereafter has surely gone
Those who believe, then disbelieve and then
believe again and disbelieve once more and then
grow stubborn in their denial of the truth, they
will not find protection from Allah nor
the straight path.
O Rasool! announce to the Mun’afiqeen
that a very severe chastisement awaits them.
Do those who take for friends Kuff’ar
instead of Momineen seek power and
prestige from them? Tell them that all power and
prestige comes from Allah and can be had
by adherence to His Laws.
Leave aside friendship with the Kuff’ar;
it has already been communicated to you in the
Book that if you hear Allah’s Laws being
rejected and scoffed at, do not sit in such
company until it changes its discourse. If you
do not do so you will be reckoned as one of
them. Allah will surely gather together
all Mun’afiqeen and Kuff’ar
in hell. (6/68).
The Mun’afiqeen wait and watch
about you. If victory is granted to you they say
to you: “were we not with you?”, and if success
falls to the lot of the unbelievers they say to
them: “Did we not encourage you to attack the
believers and protect you from them?”. Tell them
that Allah will judge between you on the
Day of Reckoning. Never will Allah allow
the unbelievers an upper hand over the
They adopt two-faced tactics towards Allah’s
System and delude themselves into thinking that
they are deceiving Allah. In fact they
are deceiving themselves (2/9). When they join
the assembly of Sal’at they do so
grudgingly. They ignore the purpose of Sal’at,
paying attention only to its formal aspect in
order to be seen by others (2/54, 107/4-7).
They belong sincerely neither to one party nor
to the other but hover like a fly between the
two. Those who discard the path shown by
Allah will never find a way.
O Jama’at-ul-Momineen befriend
only the Momineen and not the K’afireen.
If you befriend the latter, this action alone
will be sufficient as evidence against you.
will surely be in the lowest depths of
Jahannam where they will find no helpers.
The exception is those who make amends and hold
fast to Allah’s Laws, adhering to the
Deen sincerely. Only then will they be
reckoned amongst you. The Momineen will
soon be rewarded abundantly by Allah.
Why should Allah deal out chastisement to
you if you believe in His Laws and adhere to
them sincerely? Allah knows about every
sincere action and rewards it.
evil is not liked by Allah but it is
permissible for one who has been wronged to talk
about the injustice done to him. Surely Allah
is All-Hearing, All-Knowing (as to the intent
for such a publicity).
As for good, there is no harm if you publicise
it or conceal it. To be forbearing towards
others’ shortcomings is a good thing. See how
Allah with all His power, is forbearing.
Those who deny Allah
and His Rusul, those who believe in the
Laws of Allah operating in the outer
universe (i.e. Laws of Nature) but do not
believe in the Laws given by Him through His
Rusul for the guidance of mankind, and those
who accept a part of these Laws, rejecting the
others and desire to take a course in-between,
all of them are truly unbelievers. Allah
has prepared a humiliating chastisement for
On the other hand, those who believe in Allah
and His Rusul and make no distinction
amongst them are (in truth) Momineen.
They will be rewarded by Allah, the
Protector and Nourisher.
The Ahl-ul-Kit’ab demand that a
ready-made Book should be sent to them from
above. They had made an even greater demand of
Moses asking him “Show us Allah visibly.”
They were so bold in making such a demand but so
weak that they were terrified even of the
thundering noise of the earthquake (2/55,
They deified a
calf after they had received clear guidance from
Allah. But even thereafter Allah
was forbearing towards them and conferred
unquestioned authority upon Moses.
They were afterwards given security by being
placed in a valley with a mountain protecting
them from the back. A covenant was taken from
them to enter the city submissively (2/63) and
also not to transgress the prohibitions imposed
in relation to the Sabbath (2/65). This was a
very firm covenant taken from them.
They violated their covenant, denied the Laws of
Allah, murdered their Anbia
unjustly and professed boastfully that their
hearts were sealed and nothing new would enter
them. The seal upon their hearts was the result
of their wrong-doings and now they do not
profess Ei’man but few of them.
They charged Mary with a
grave calumny. They boasted that they had
murdered Jesus, son of Mary, Rasool of
Allah, although the fact is that they
neither murdered him nor crucified him. What
they took for reality was merely something which
appeared to them as such.
On the other
hand, those who differ from Jews (i.e.
Christians) are also in doubt about the matter.
Their knowledge is no more than a surmise. It is
certain that they (i.e. Jews) did not murder
158 The Jews
say that by crucifying him they had inflicted a
degrading death upon him. Allah has
raised Jesus very high in His ranks. He had
power enough to protect Jesus from his enemies
and He did so with great sagacity (3/54).
The Christians are so firm in their belief that
each one confesses before his death that Jesus
was crucified and atoned for their sins. On the
Day of Reckoning, Jesus himself will bear
witness against them (5/116-117).
Due to the wrong doings of the Jews, they were
forbidden to partake of what was lawful earlier
doings included obstructing many from following
the path of Allah, taking Riba
although it was forbidden and devouring others’
property unlawfully. Allah has prepared a
grievous torment for unbelievers amongst them.
Amongst them, however, there are people who
acquire true knowledge and then believe in what
has been sent down to you, O Rasool! and
what was revealed earlier and co-operate in
establishing the order of Sal’at
and Zak’at. They really believe in
Allah and the Hereafter and to them We
will give a great reward. (The fact that they
belong to the race of Bani-Isr’ael
will not stand in the way of getting good reward
(Islam is not a new
Deen.) We have, O Rasool sent
revelation to you as We sent it to Noah and the
Anbia after him, e.g. Abraham, Ishm’ael,
Isaac, Jacob and their progeny, Jesus, Job,
Jonah, Aaron and Solomon, and We gave Zaboor
to David. W have sent similar revelations to the
Anbia mentioned to you earlier including
Moses, as well as to those who have not been
The mission of the Rusul was to give
people tidings to the effect that if they
adhered to Allah’s Laws they would lead a
blissful life and to warn them that if they did
not do so they would lead a life of degradation
and ruin. The Rusul were sent so that
people would not say that they had not been told
by Allah how they should lead their
lives. None should have a plea against Allah
after clear guidance had been given to them
through Rusul. Allah is indeed
Allah bears witness to the truth of what,
out of His Own wisdom, has been sent down to you
O Rasool, and the Malaika (i.e.
the magnificent system prevailing in the
universe) also bear witness to that effect.
Allah is sufficient as a witness.
Those who do not believe in the revelation and
create obstructions in the way of Allah,
assuredly go far astray.
Those who reject Allah’s
Laws and perpetrate zulm will not find
protection from Allah nor the straight
path to the destination prescribed by Him. The
path which they follow will lead them to hell
where they will abide for a long time; indeed,
it is easy according to the Law of Mukaf’at.
O Mankind! now that a Rasool has come to
you bearing truth from your Rabb, believe
in him, it will be good for you. But if you do
not believe, mark that no harm will be done to
Allah. The entire universe is busy in
carrying out Allah’s Plan which is based
on knowledge and wisdom.
O Ahl-ul-Kit’ab do not exceed the
limits prescribed by your Deen (i.e. keep
everyone in his proper place 5/77). Speak
nothing but the truth about Allah. The
Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, is nothing but a
Rasool from Allah who was raised
according to Allah’s Law which was
conveyed to Mary. His teachings were based upon
revelation which was the source of his strength.
So you believe in Allah and His Rusul,
including Jesus and do not believe in the
“Trinity.” If you refrain believing in the
latter it will be good for you. Bear in mind
that Allah is the only authority, far
above the concept of having a son (as already
stated 2/116). All the universe is busy in
accomplishing His Plan and He is sufficient as a
You deify Jesus and the
Malaika but neither of them disdain to be
Allah’s servants. Allah will gather
all those who are arrogant and disdain to be His
servants. But to those who believe in Him and
act according to His Laws, He will give
compensation in full and much more out of His
bounty. However, those who have been disdainful
and stiff-necked will face a grievous
chastisement and find no helper or friend
O Mankind! Allah has
sent to you a manifest light (Quran)
which is a clear proof of the truthfulness of
His Laws. Allah will admit those who
believe in Him and hold fast to His Laws, to His
Rahmat and Blessings and will show them
the path which leads to His blessings.
At the beginning of this Surah
instructions were given regarding the
distribution of inheritance of a deceased who
leaves no children but has brothers, sisters and
parents (4/12). The inheritance of a deceased
who leaves neither children nor parents should
be distributed as follows:-
Should the deceased be
a man having only one sister, she will have
one-half of the inheritance;
Should the deceased be
a woman, her brother shall be her sole heir;
Should the deceased be
a man having two (or more) sisters, they will
together have two-thirds of the inheritance
If there are several
brothers and sisters, distribution should be
made according to the Law that share of a male
is twice that of a female.
has made these Laws clear to you so that you may
not err. Allah knows all things.
**** It is clear from the above that the
purpose of Sal’at is served only when one
understands what he is saying.