By: Br. Asif Jalil
I dedicate this book to the greatest Quranic Scholar of the 20th century the late Mr. Ghulam Ahmed Parwez who taught me, and thousands of others, the proper way of interpreting the Quran, as a result of which the Quranic ideas came free of outdated tradition, revealing clearly the facts, and I personally was saved from being lost in the darkness of atheism to where religion was leading me.
I would like to express my deep appreciation and gratitude to my beloved friend, an elder brother and a mentor, Mr. Khalid Mehmood Sayyed for translating my work from Urdu to English. I have gained knowledge and wisdom from his companionship and I always have been inspired by his approach to deal with the people with love and respect.
Preface to English Version
This is an English version of my work in Urdu, translated by Mr. Khalid M. Sayeed. Before publishing, I requested some of my friends to review this book for their comments and suggestions. Mr. Kahlid Zaman from UK, advised that the translation of the Hadiths should be directly from the English books of Hadiths, so that it would be easier for the English reader to cross check contents of this book. I found a CD, which has English translation of the Hadith, but it was a difficult task to match the reference number of the Hadiths. The Urdu edition has three volumes and the English edition has nine volumes. Anyhow by laborious job of browsing up and down, searching for each Hadith, I was able to get the references. I have copied and pasted the text as it is in the English translation of Alim CD, though I do not agree with the word “prophet” to be used for Mohammad (SAWS). I prefer to use Messenger of Allah, instead.
I hope that the English readers would be able to distinguish between the ORIGINAL ISLAM (as in the Quran) and that which is in practice. (according to Hadith).
Various scholars of thought differ a great deal regarding the Hadith and the Tradition. Most religious leaders totally deny that such difference of opinion exists. But facts are undeniable. This very difference of opinion is the cause of each sect having their own exclusive mosques.
Whenever someone airs the notion that the Hadith does not form the basis of Din, or that these accounts should not be all attributed to the Messenger of Allah, they are unanimously declared “Rejecter of Hadith” and heretic (Kafir) by all sects. One just wonders where from have they got the authority to do so! Allah has laid down the criterion of Conviction and Heresy in His exalted Book. No one has been given the authority to make judgments about others. The right to decide the religious status of a person rests only with the “Quranic Government”. The question is: Why all the differences if the compilers of Hadith had thoroughly met high standards of research? The hollowness of the claim of perfection is revealed visibly when religious leaders reject the Hadith presented by their opponents because of “weakness” (not authentic enough), doubtful integrity of a narrator, or even a general unacceptability, even though the piece in question may be from one of the Six Authentic Books.
In this book I have limited myself to the Bokhari. Interestingly, this most authentic complication of Hadith has been termed as the book second only to the Quran in authenticity. Nonetheless, translators probably belonging to the Hanafi school of thought, have criticized its contents. For example;
“Imam Shafeyee rules that bleeding does not nullifies the state of ablution whereas it does according to the Hanafees. Supporting evidence is found in Hanafi literature*. Imam Bokhari seeks to counter the Hanafi arguments although the Hanafees do have substantial evidence of nullification of ablution. ”
Obviously, the religious leaders regard neither the Quran nor the Tradition as the Standard. They follow their particular school of thought (which in turn changes with time – Imam Abu Hanifa did not depend on the Tradition but Hanafis of today do). Actually, whatever the religious leaders pronounce, is accepted by their followers as true and authentic.
* Hanafi literature is naturally and logically less authentic (inferior) than the Bokhari (‘- secondary to the Quran’)
The common man very rarely, if at all, reads a compilation of the Tradition. Therefore, he accepts as true the claim by religious leaders that the Tradition is actually a collection of the Messenger of Allah without any check-over. Even the religious Scholars, for the most, do not read these compilations at first hand. In reality, therefore, they support and defend something about which they have no information. Their initial response to a questionable piece of Tradition is to deny its existence. Then, even after having read it themselves, they go quiet or refuse to alter their stance. Such stubbornness can not be justified logically and rationally.
The Bokhari is considered to be the most authentic compilation of Hadith. I have classified all the pieces in this book into various categories with examples and the number of narration for each category.
I have tried my best to quote all references correctly. I may have erred by dint of being human. I will welcome with gratitude any academic suggestions or criticism.
The valuable people who have helped and co-operated in the production of this book need not be mentioned as they do not seek fame or even gratitude. But I must say this: Their worth to me may only be assessed by those who have experienced the book of the Quran – the highest of all human relationships. My prayer (wish) for those brothers is that they keep in attaining new heights by serving humanity.
THE FOUNDATION OF ‘DEEN’
The well-known expression of ‘The Book (the Quran) and the Sunnat (the Messenger of Allah’s tradition)’ is widely accepted as a truth among Muslims. But, surprisingly, the meaning of Sunna is not at all clear. ‘The Book’ is taken to mean the Quran, which is agreed upon as acceptable to (at least) the Sunni sect of Islam. Every Muslim is obliged to believe in it. A copy of the Quran is easily obtainable. But a copy of ‘the Sunna’ is a very different matter. No such thing exists. Sunna, then, needs some explanation.
Can something, which is unclear, undetermined and not satisfactorily defined be adopted as standard? Obviously not, particularly so when different people view it differently. The confusion this is certainly going to cause may be compared to an analogous situation of one trying to buy a length of cloth and discovers different shopkeepers have different measures, and all insisting that the measure which they have is the real standard one. To resolve this problem, there must be a standard measure officially ascertained by the authorities. In the absence of such a standard the confusion will persist.
The term ‘Sunna’ is no different. Every sect insists on the validity of its own version of Sunna which is different from all the others. This was the very basis of various mosques and religious teaching places. The Government of Pakistan constitutionally recognizes the existence of various sects of Islam who are given leave to adopt their respective code of jurisprudence. The big question is: ‘If there arises a dispute between two persons belonging to two differing sects, which code of jurisprudence will be applied?’
The insistence on retaining the term ‘Quran & Sunna’ raises some questions:
Can the Quran not be the only criterion?
If not, why?
If the Quran must be accompanied by ‘Sunna’, do the two differ from one another?
If different from the Quran, which code of Sunna is acceptable to all sects of Islam?
I put these questions to a number of relevant people – the self-styled as well as the country’s established religious scholars. Their response was illogical – if there was one at all. My own reading did not help much, either. In short, I was told that ‘Sunna’ is a term which refers to the Messenger of Allah’s words or deeds, the compilations of Hadith being the same. I was not satisfied. The Shias do not consider these compilations as authentic and have their own. The Sunni sects, too, have their own individual preferred compilations of Sunna. (Somebody choosing to ignore this fact just has to consider the separate mosques for separate sects, and whether the Messenger of Allah belonged to one of these sects. Surely, there was only one form of prayer in his time!).
The only basis for ‘Deen’, the Standard of right and wrong can only be, and is, the Quran. This is the only way to eliminate differences. The Messenger of Allah adopted this way and his Sunna will be only that which conforms with the Quran.
The religious leaders do not accept the Quran as the only criterion because this eliminates sects and thus threatens their vested interests.
It is deplorable that the Quran is openly violated in order to promote sectarianism about which Allah has said;
‘Don’t be like those who split (into groups) and differed after having received clear (guidance). For such people there is great punishment.
(Aal Imran – 105)
‘Verily, those who split their ‘deen’ (system) and created groups (sects) (O Messenger of Allah), have nothing to do with you’
(Al-Ana’am – 159)
There are other violations committed against the Quran. For example, it is claimed that the Hadith contains a number of things not found in the Quran. In other words, the Quran is considered to be incomplete. But Allah says:
‘Your Provider’s word has been completed truly and fairly. No one is (there) to alter His words.’
(Al-Ana’am – 115)
Again, it is claimed that the Quran contains concise principles, the details of which are provided by the traditional compilations. This notion, too, is against the Quran:
‘Should I look for a judge other than Allah (whereas) He is the One who sent down the Book in detail to you.’
(Al-Ana’am – 114)
‘ALR – (this is a) Book whose verses, and then their details, were explained by a wise and knowledgeable Allah.
(Hood – 1)
The Quran contains details of only certain items which are eternally unchangeable. Generally, however, it contains only basic principles the details of which can be decided by people according to the needs of their day and age. These principles have been termed ‘The Boundaries of Allah’, confined within which we have to devise and develop the practical aspects. It is the responsibility of the Islamic State established on the basis of the Quranic philosophy. For instance, the Quran does not specify the rate of ‘Zakah’ simply in order to keep it flexible for changing times. A permanently fixed rate – unadaptable to varying need of the day – would have rendered the Islamic System to a change of archaically rigid. The rate prescribed in the Hadith (2½ %) is simply insufficient for today’s world. It was determined during the autocratic era of Islam in order to promote capitalism and amassing of wealth (which, incidentally, is strictly forbidden by the Quran). Similarly, the articles liable for the (Zakah) tax mentioned in the Hadith pertain to that specific era (time of the Messenger of Allah).
Zakah was levied on cattle because that was the predominant form of wealth. The situation in today’s world is very different. Again, the rate fixed for gold and silver must have been in accordance with their current value at the time. Today, ten tolas (Pakistani measure equivalent to 10 grams) of gold is worth nearly 50,000 Pakistani rupees, whereas 40 tolas of silver costs only about 5,000 rupees. According to the Hadith rates (determined 1300 years ago) it will be ridiculous to levy zaka on 5,000 rupees worth of silver but none on 49,000 rupees worth of gold.
Several similar examples illustrate the impracticability in today’s world of laws formulated more than a thousand years ago. That is precisely why the Quran did not determine the details (sub-laws) leaving it to the Quranic government of the day.
The prevalent principles of Islamic jurisprudence were established by individuals who did not have political or official authority. The rule of the day was an anti-Quranic autocratic system. The laws adopted, if at all, were only those considered ‘safe’ by the rulers. On top of that, a number of anti-Quranic laws were declared to be Islamic. Their anti-Quranic basis can be seen even today.
Such laws should have been checked against the Quran for adoption or rejection. But, strangely, such laws were attributed to the Messenger of Allah via his tradition (Hadith). These laws and relations mostly deal with everyday life and have no relation to state or financial issues. They prescribe some punishments which are different from those in the Quran. They are just incapable of running a state. Still, these laws are toned as sacred because they guarantee the financial survival and existence of clerics. It is pitiful that they are attributed to the Messenger of Allah. If someone expresses a doubt about their claimed origin and source (the Messenger of Allah – ‘He could not have said / done this because it is anti-Quranic), the clerics brand him /her a heretic, a rejecter of Hadith and a non-believer. The fact is that, according to the Quranic testimony, the Messenger of Allah always followed the Quran. Therefore, to attribute an anti-Quranic deed to the Messenger of Allah is really to tarnish his image. That is deplorable.
Books of Hadith were compiled by ordinary men. They did not have the authority to determine if a certain action was indeed committed by the Messenger of Allah. They did not know better than him. They could have avoided the wrongful attribution of anti-Quranic deeds to the Messenger of Allah. In order to prove the validity of Hadith, points like the narrator, chain of names and vigorous scenting are put forward.
This is a deceptive method which cannot prove with certainty the original source of narrative, even when it is reported by several people. The fact of the matter is that the only determiners of the authenticity of reports about the Messenger of Allah were Bokhari, Muslim, Tirmezi, Ibn Maja, and Nisaaee etc. They simply did not have any authority to do it.
One rejects a Hadith not because of disobedience to the Messenger of Allah, but because it does not appear to have come from him because of its being anti-Quranic. Such a person should be supported and not decreed against. If someone refuses to accept that the Messenger of Allah used to behave opposite the Quran (which appears to be the case from several Hadith), he should be commended not judged against in a divine manner. Only Allah’s law may decide someone’s state of belief.
These compilations have been elevated to such an exalted status that even the slightest criticism of them is taken to be a rejection of the Messenger of Allah’s words. No Muslim would do that in his wildest dreams. At the same time, however, no Muslim should accept everything and anything presented as the Messenger of Allah’s word.
A puzzling fact about these books is that all of the compilers are non-Arab, i.e. Persian. The same is the case with the earliest commentaries on the Quran and treatises on history. This could not have been a mere chance. Medina (the Messenger of Allah’s city) had several highly respectable companions of the Messenger of Allah. The first four (righteous) successors (caliphs) to the Messenger of Allah could have, but did not, have the Messenger of Allah’s tradition compiled for the general good of the Muslims. On the contrary, history books (considered to be authentic by the religious leaders ) report that Abu beker and Omar prohibited the compilation of Hadith. Moreover, they ordered the ones already done destroyed. Even the Messenger of Allah himself did not have a collection of his sayings for the Umma (the Muslim nation) in the way he left the Quran. Incidentally, the tradition-loving among the Muslims do not accept this view. They uphold the sanctity of Tradition even when it jeopardizes the Qurani’s status. This argument states that both the Quran and the Hadith were collected and compiled in the same way. Actually, the Quran testifies that it was written down in book form; also, it has provided a criterion for it being Allah’s work: it is free of contradictions.
Another important claim of the traditionalists is that Hadith is Revelation, just as the Quran is. Thus, Revelation is divided into two categories: the recited (the Quran) and the un-recited (the Hadith). This view can be rebutted in the following way. This notion splits the person of Allah in two. If the Hadiths were also divine, they would have met the same criterion as the Quran. True that the Hadith can be judged for validity against the Quran, but what is Un-recited Revelation. Where can one find it completely catalogued? These questions get no answer from the traditionalists. They remained unanswered when I sent them via registered post to the editor of ‘Mohadith’ monthly. In reality, there can NOT be any answers to these questions about something un-realistic.
There is one more important point worth pondering upon. Since the time of the Messenger of Allah, literacy had been growing and Omar is reported to regularly send written instructions to governors. There also existed written records of the affairs of the state, which must have been carried on till the end of the righteous caliphate. That record would have been authentic pointer to the structure of an Islamic State. But all that record has gone amiss, evidently, serving the interests of new autocratic rulers. The anti-monarchy pronouncements of the Messenger of Allah must also have been suppressed into non-existence. On the other hand were promoted Hadith which mostly appear fabricated because they are either anti-Quranic or have become obsolete in today’s world.
Another debatable aspect of Hadith is its practicality for today’s Muslims. If Hadith to be adopted in its entirety as rulings of the Messenger of Allah to be followed by all at all times? Is some part of Hadith merely a report of his behavior purely as an individual? It is generally agreed upon that it is not binding on us to follow all his Hadith. Even certain actions in ablution and prayer (his sunna) are considered to be optional for his followers. How and when that option is to be exercised is, however, disputable. Take miswaak (cleaning one’s teeth with a twig) for instance. Some scholars vehemently insist on sticking to it decreeing a modern tooth brush as anti-sunna. But most of them do not insist on following most of the Messenger of Allah’s other sunna – consuming minimal amounts of meat, sleeping on a cane mat, using a camel for travel, and above all, giving away in charity whatever he had every night before going to bed!
So many religious scholars insist on aspects of sunna which are not demanding on the body and, more significantly, on the pocket – growing a beard, using a miswaak, wearing their dress just above the ankles, etc. They conveniently ignore tradition regarding consumption of food or spending money. The question is: On what basis is sporting a beard more important than sleeping on a can mat? Invariably, their response is that they are religious scholars and, therefore, know best. The fact is that these matters pertain to peoples’ personal lives which Islam does not encroach upon. One’s beard does not necessarily influence the self of others.
To sum up, I maintain that the final standard is the Quran only; and the sunna of the Messenger of Allah is no different. But what is referred to as sunna by the clerics just cannot be adopted as standard because there does not exist a book of sunna agreed upon by all.
The Sahih Bokhari
Hadith is generally thought to be the source of the Messenger of Allah’s way (sunna) and Sahih Bokhari is considered to be the most authentic of the Hadith books (despite this, the Hanafis, while accepting them as authentic, do not implement the Hadith in their lives). I made a thorough and deep study of this book (Bokhari) in order to ascertain its value as the source of sunna. I discovered several things which the clerics either do not know or deliberately ignore. For example, to emphasize the importance of Hadith an apparently weighty argument is put forwarded. It is claimed that the detailed regulations about prayer can be found in the Hadith and not in the Quran ( as I have already pointed out, the details left out by the Quran are meant to be determined by people according to their particular time and day. I must repeat here that this is to be done collectively on a social level and not individually). Is it not strange then, that Sahih Bokhari does not contain the details of prayer – what is rukoo’ (bowing), what is a raka’, how to posture for tash’hud, etc.! I asked for several religious scholars to point out to me the Hadith in Bokhari which gives details of prayer. Despite promises, I still await their answers! Of all the people I asked, just one did provide one with a book titled ‘ Sifa Salat an Nabi’ (The Manner of the Messenger of Allah’s Prayer) by one Mohammed Nasiruddin Al-Albaani. It contains details of prayer gathered from a large number of tradition books. It suggests six different ways of tash’hid (sitting during prayer) and seven kinds of praises of Messenger of Allah. The type of prayer suggested is the one adopted by the Hanmbalis (in Saudi Arabia). The majority of Pakistani Muslims (Hanafis) refuse to accept it. Moreover, the references quoted in this book are, for a large part, not among the SIX CORRECT BOOKS.
The question is: Why does Sahih Bokhari, considered the most authentic book of Tradition, not contain method of performing prayer? Why did Bokhari not include such reports in his work? If he omitted them because of their doubtful authenticity, why are prayer details (presumably contained in them) from them accepted as authentic? The fact of the matter is that one does not find the method of prayer in either Bokhari or Muslim. Every Muslim learns to pray from home and consequently adopts a particular method like Hanafi, Ahle Hadith, and so on. We often find separate mosques for the various sects even within one district. Every sect considers the other sects’ methods as wrong, arriving at their own ‘correct’ method from Hadith! This makes it very difficult for the common man to see right from wrong. This problem could have been resolved by a legitimate Quranic government deciding upon a common method of prayer.
The second important point is: Hadith cannot supersede the Quran. Therefore, it is erroneous to interpret the Quran to suit Hadith (e.g., in issues like prayer, fasting, taxes, pilgrimage etc). The correct approach is to determine them from the Quran and then to accept only Hadith which support the Book. The Quran, laying down laws, also explains their rationale as well as results to be expected. Methodology may differ from time to time but their outcome must be the same. But actually the Hadith is upheld as supreme regardless of the Quran. Take Sala (prayer) for instance. The Quran states:
‘When We establish them (as rulers) on Earth, they implement (the Systems of Salat and Zaka.
(Al-Hajj : 41)
That is, establishment of the Quranic government is a pre-requisite for achieving results mentioned by the Quran.
‘Verily, sala’ eradicates the vulgar and the forbidden’
(-Al-Ankboot – 45)
Sala’, therefore, should do away with social vice. Obviously, it does not do that in the Muslim world. One must, therefore, look into the possibility of a flaw in the methodology of prayer.
Similarly, in Sura Al-Maa’oon, it says:
‘Have you noticed the one who falsifies al-Deen? He is the one who abandons the lonely and does not arrange Sustenance for the destitute. So, destruction is for those praying and are oblivious of (the spirit of) sala. These are the ones whose prayer is but a facade. They ignore the mutual welfare system embodied by Sala.’
This Sura (Al-Maa’oon) very clearly defines sala – a gathering which starts with a formal and symbolic bowing before Allah and then tries practically to solve economic and social problems. This can be done by someone with authority. Therefore, every imam (leader) of the prayer gathering will be a representative (appointee) of the Quranic government entrusted in the tackling people’s problems. Certain reports in the Tradition do indicate that this, in fact, was the case. Currently, mosques have been converted to places of performing religious rituals and have absolutely no concern with social issues.
The emphasis, therefore, should shift from adopting futile Hadith to establishing a system of sala which aims at achieving its prescribed targets. This, as I have already stressed, can only be done by the authentic Quranic government.
As Sahih Bokhari is deemed to be the second most authentic book of Islam, it is naturally imperative to know what is actually contains, what issues it addresses, and how well it interprets and explains the Quran. For that, I have classified it into certain categories the reports contained in it. The copy I have used is a publication of Maktaba ta’meer-e-Insaniyat, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan. This was the only variety of the book the shop had, which means that this particular publication is not sectarian or doubtful in any other way. I say this because some religious scholars, when their attention is drawn to certain questionable contents of the book, respond by blaming it on some mischievous publisher.
All the references in this article are from that particular copy.
The book opens with a message from the publisher saying:
“The treasure of Divine message, received by us through the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has two categories – one by Allah, the other by The Messenger of Allah. A very dependable way of knowing the Sunna is through the Messenger of Allah’s Tradition contained in the SIX CORRECT BOOKS.
Of these, Al-Jaame al-Sahih by Imam Bokhari ranks the highest. This was compiled by Imam Mohammad bin Ismail Bokhari over a period of sixteen years. All the religious scholars unanimously agree that this is a compilation of 7,275 most authentic reports. This book ranks even above Muslim in authenticity.”
Keeping this reference in mind, please note that the three (3) volumes of this copy contains 2,531, 2113 and 2408 reports, respectively. This gives us a total of 7,052 and not 7,275. The shortfall of 223 has not been explained anywhere in the book.
Discounting the repetitions, the number of reports by my count is down to 2,732. The repeated items are extremely difficult to locate as a report may appear in up to 13 separate chapters, occasionally having no relevance with the chapter itself. My task was made easy by Fahaaris al-Bokhari by Ridwan Mohammed Ridwan, obtained in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, I was able to compare with this book reports contained in the copy of Bokhari I was using. I could find differences in only about a dozen items. The rest were identical.
Several reports in Bokhari are not printable in my work here. I would rather my sisters and daughters did not read them as they refer to issues like bathing, menstruation, wedding vows, etc. It is said that religious jurisprudence has to deal with all aspects of life. But, it is very strange that issues concerning women, though coming from the Messenger of Allah, are narrated to men by his wife Ayesha. This gives me the impression that several reports have been fabricated with intent to damage the reputation of the Messenger of Allah, his wives and his companions. Such reports have been criticized even by some religious leaders. Clearly, the Hadith are not Revelation and, as such, do not form the basis of Al-Deen.
I must hasten to state that I am in no way casting doubts over Imam Bokhari’s intentions. Furthermore, it is impossible to ascertain today the extent of fabrication done later on. What I am saying is just this: The Hadith, are not Revelation and cannot be adopted as the Deen’s basis. It should be considered in an historical concept and weigh them against the Quran which is the only collection of Revelation, the basis of Al-Deen, and an illustration of the Messenger of Allah’s conduct (sunna).
Following is my classification of the reports, with some examples of each, from Sahih Bokhari:
I- Irrelevant to Practical Life
Sahih Bokhari contains 1,205 reports in this class. These relate to issues which, even if they were relevant to people’s lives fourteen centuries ago, are totally absurd today and just are not worth to be enacted as the law of a land. Surely, we would not have missed them. For instance, the proper manner of having a bath is reported thus:
Aisha's brother and I went to 'Aisha and he asked her about the bath of the Prophet. She brought a pot containing about a Sa' of water and took a bath and poured it over her head and at what time there was a screen between her and us.
Narrated by Abu Salama - 1.251
It raises several questions like: Have we actually learnt to bath from only this particular report? (Obviously not); Must we follow this bathing manner of Messenger of Allah? If we don’t comply, do we become rejecters of sunna? As far as I know, no religious leader today has a bath in this particular way. Clearly, the manner of Messenger of Allah was suitable in his day. We are not obliged to follow suit in today’s world. Is it, therefore, wrong to say that we must approach all Hadith similarly? How can we decide which reports have become outdated?
Furthermore, what is depicted in this Hadith is shameful. Wasn’t there any other way to teach how to take bath? If there was veil between them, how the narrator had come to know what was going on. And to imagine the other possibility, it would be better to set this Hadith to fire.
Some more examples:
My father said, "I came to the Prophet and saw him carrying a Siwak in his hand and cleansing his teeth, saying, 'U' U'," as if he was retching while the Siwak was in his mouth."
Narrated by Abu Burda 1.245
The Prophet used to proceed to the Musalla and an 'Anaza used to be carried before him and planted in the Musalla in front of him and he would pray facing it (as a Sutra).
Narrated by Ibn Umar 2.90
Allah's Apostle led us and offered a two Rakat prayer and then went away.
Narrated by Anas Bin Malik - 2.265
Abu Bakr wrote to me what Allah's Apostle has made compulsory (regarding Zakat) and this was mentioned in it: If a property is equally owned by two partners, they should pay the combined Zakat and it will be considered that both of them have paid their Zakat equally.
Narrated by Anas - 2.531
We were with the Prophet when a tall pagan with long matted unkempt hair came driving his sheep. The Prophet asked him, "Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?" The pagan replied, "They are for sale." The Prophet bought one sheep from him.
Narrated by Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr – 3.419
In our garden there was a horse belonging to the Prophet called Al-Luhaif or Al-Lakhif.
Narrated by Sahl - 4.107
I heard the Prophet while referring to the person who had cut the legs of the she-camel (of the Prophet Salih), saying, "The man who was appointed for doing this job, was a man of honor and power in his nation like Abu Zam'a."
Narrated by Abdullah bin Zama – 4.560
We were with the Prophet while he was holding 'Umar bin Al-Khattab by the hand.
Narrated by Abdullah bin Hisham – 5.43
The Prophet said, "Had only ten Jews (amongst their chiefs) believe me, all the Jews would definitely have believed me."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 5.277
When the clans were driven away, I heard the Prophet saying, "From now onwards we will go to attack them (i.e. the infidels) and they will not come to attack us, but we will go to them."
Narrated by Sulaiman bin Surd – 5.4326
The Prophet said, "The best women are the riders of the camels and the righteous among the women of Quraish. They are the kindest women to their children in their childhood and the more careful women of the property of their husbands."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 7.19
To the best of my knowledge, the Prophet did not take his meals in a big tray at all, nor did he ever eat well-baked thin bread, nor did he ever eat at a dining table.
Narrated by Anas - 7.298
The most beloved garment to the Prophet to wear was the Hibra (a kind of Yemenese cloth).
Narrated by Anas bin Malik - 7.704
Allah's Apostle said, "If you knew that which I know you would laugh little and weep much."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 8.492
Hudhaifa said, "O the Group of Al-Qurra! Follow the straight path, for then you have taken a great lead (and will be the leaders), but if you divert right or left, then you will go astray far away."
Narrated by Hammam - 9.386
The above reports are but a few short ones from a large number there are some elaborate ones, too. Regardless of what good, can the religious leaders see in them, such reports are simply irrelevant to today’s life and world.
Interestingly, some reports, if implemented today, will surely because a mini-riot. Take just two examples:
Said bin Yazid Al-Azdi: I asked Anas bin Malik whether the Prophet had ever prayed with his shoes on. He replied "Yes."
Narrated by Abu Maslama - 1.383
The Prophet said, "Whenever anyone of you offers his prayer he is speaking in private to his Lord. So he should not spit to his right but under his left foot." Qatada said, "He should not spit in front of him but to his left or under his feet." And Shu'ba said, "He should not spit in front of him, nor to his right but to his left or under his foot." Anas said: The Prophet said, "He should neither spit in the direction of his Qibla nor to his right but to his left or under his foot."
Narrated by Anas - 1.508
Please note that I have observed people praying with their shoes on in Saudi Arabia. In Pakistan, however, this means inviting trouble which could become fatal.
II- Contrary to the Quran
This category contains the second highest number of reports (650). Since no utterance or action of the Messenger of Allah could ever be anti-Quranic, these reports just cannot have come from him. To attribute such reports to the Messenger of Allah tantamount a slur on him.
The religious leaders go to the extreme by maintaining that Hadith supersedes the Quran. Allah says :
“It is not (possible) for any human being unto whom Allah had given the Scripture and wisdom and the Prophet-hood that he should afterwards have said unto mankind: Be my followers instead of Allah”.
How can the religious leaders claim to exercise a right denied even to Messenger of Allahs? That is between them and Allah. The rest of us mortals should not accept anything without scrutinizing it. As I have said before in this book, Hadith cannot be adopted as the ultimate criterion.
The majority of religious leaders believe that nearly 315 verses of the Quran are suspended and do not apply any longer. The reason for this suspension was certain verses replacing some already existing ones per chronology of revelation. The following verse is presented as supporting evidence for this notion:
“When We suspend or (make you) forget a verse, We bring a similar or better one to replace it.”
(Al-Baqara : 106 )
Looking at the Quranic verses in isolation can definitely produce an illusion of contradiction. Allah presents the Quran’s consistency as one of proofs for its being divine. Our religious leaders are in the habit of stubbornly insisting on interpreting verses in isolation. Arrogant as they are, they stick to their opinion even at the risk of bringing disrepute to Allah, His Messenger of Allah or His Book!
Consider two other verses which negate the notion of suspended Verses:
“And all the Messenger of Allahs and messengers We sent before you met the same circumstances. Satan (individuals distracting people from Allah’s word) would alter His book (by mixing in it his own ideas). Allah would send another messenger to rectify the mistakes and Present Allah’s word as it should have been.”
(Al-Hajj : 22 )
This refers to the alterations in all the divine messages before the Quran, which is now the only source of Allah’s true word. It is deplorable that the sanctity of this book is being destroyed by strange notions about it being incomplete, too concise and inconsistent.
“ I do not change My utterance nor do I commit wrong to Myself.”
( Q : 29 )
Clearly, Allah does not alter His word. He has not authorized men to do it. How awful that Allah does not have legal copyright to His book! Some examples of Anti-Quranic reports in Hadith:
The Prophet said, "Love for the Ansar is a sign of faith and hatred for the Ansar is a sign of hypocrisy."
Narrated by Anas - 1.16
In conditions for Conviction mentioned in the Quran do not include the one in this report. Also, how is this report practicable today?
"One night Allah's Apostle led us in the 'Isha' prayer and that is the one called Al-'Atma by the people. After the completion of the prayer, he faced us and said, 'Do you know the importance of this night? Nobody present on the surface of the earth tonight will be living after one hundred years from this night.' "
Narrated by Abdullah - 1.539
Such reports attributed to Messenger of Allah are all anti-Quranic because Allah says:
‘Tell (them): “I don’t say to you that I possess divine treasures, or information on the unknown, nor that I am an angel. I just follow whatever is revealed to me.”
(Al-An’aam : 50 )
All the information on the unknown revealed to the Messenger of Allah are contained in the Quran!
The Prophet led us in the Fajr prayer at Hudaibiya after a rainy night. On completion of the prayer, he faced the people and said, "Do you know what your Lord has said (revealed)?" The people replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." He said, "Allah has said, 'In this morning some of my slaves remained as true believers and some became non-believers; whoever said that the rain was due to the Blessings and the Mercy of Allah had belief in Me and he disbelieves in the stars, and whoever said that it rained because of a particular star had no belief in Me but believes in that star.' "
Narrated by Zaid bin Khalid Al Juhani - 1.807
Such reports – which tell about the Messenger of Allah delivering Allah’s words which are not found in the Quran, - are termed as Hadith Qudsi. They are all anti-Quranic and a crude attempt to establish the theory that Revelation is also found outside of the Quran. Whatever Allah said is there in the Quran, a complete book. The Messenger of Allah was obliged to leave behind, for his followers, Revelation in an organized and gathered form. That is exactly what he did. In view of this Quranic evidence, no other report or historical account can be acceptable.
Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) said, "Our Lord, the Blessed, the Superior, comes every night down on the nearest Heaven to us when the last third of the night remains, saying: 'Is there anyone to invoke Me, so that I may respond to invocation? Is there anyone to ask Me, so that I may grant him his request? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, so that I may forgive him?' "
Narrated by Abu Huraira – 2.246
Reports which refer to the person of Allah are anti-Quranic as Allah has said: “Nothing can describe Him.” Men can know Allah’s attributes (not His person) described in the Quran.
A man said to the Prophet (p.b.u.h), "My mother died suddenly and I thought that if she had lived she would have given alms. So, if I give alms now on her behalf, will she get the reward?" The Prophet replied in the affirmative.
Narrated by Aisha - 2.470
Reports referring to the living doing something on behalf of their dead relatives, and the dead being rewarded, are anti-Quranic. Allah says:
‘Eventually when one of them nears death, he requests Allah to send him back to the world (given another chance) to do good deeds. Never. He can only say it. The dead are behind a curtain to stay till they are resurrected.’
(Al-Momenoon : 99-100 )
He would not have desired to be back if his relatives could do good deeds for him!
“Whosoever get guidance, it will be beneficial to his person alone. And whosoever goes astray will only be affected himself. No one shall carry someone else’s burden!”
(Beni Israel : 15 )
Religious leaders in Pakistan very vocally propagate notions of the living good deeds for the dead. They do it because their survival depends on it. Such practices are non-existent in other Muslim countries.
III – Reports which are NOT from the Messenger
Sahih Bokhari contains 378 reports which simply are not the Messenger of Allah’s at all! They do not contain any action or utterance by or even a reference to, the Messenger of Allah. Why should they be included in this book at all is beyond comprehension. They have not been listed separately but as a part of the work. It is mind boggling that Muslims believing in certain verses of the Quran as suspended, have never dared to sift through Bokhari!
Mohammed bin Salam, Mohammed bin Hasan Wasti, Awf, report from Hasan Basri: ‘There is no problem in reading in the presence of a scholar; and Obaidullah bin Moosa reported from Sufiyaan who used to say: “ It is all right to say ‘ hadathnee’ after on has read in the presence of a Mohaddith.” Mohammed bin Salam narrates: “ I heard from Abu Asim, who reported from Maalek and Sufiyaan that to read in the presence of a scholar is the same as if a scholar was reading.” ‘
(Book of Knowledge, Rep. 61)
The above report was not found in English Version.
Once Jabir prayed with his Izar tied to his back while his clothes were lying beside him on a wooden peg. Somebody asked him, "Do you offer your prayer in a single Izar?" He replied, "I did so to show it to a fool like you. Had anyone of us two garments in the lifetime of the Prophet?"
Narrated by Muhammad bin Al Mundakir - 1.348
This report, though mentions the Messenger of Allah, does not contain any of his actions or utterances.
I was with Ibn Umar when a spear head pierced the sole of his foot and his foot stuck to the paddle of the saddle and I got down and pulled his foot out, and that happened in Mina. Al-Hajjaj got the news and came to inquire about his health and said, "Alas! If we could only know the man who wounded you!" Ibn Umar said, "You are the one who wounded me." Al-Hajjaj said, "How is that?" Ibn Umar said, "You have allowed the arms to be carried on a day on which nobody used to carry them and you allowed arms to be carried in the Haram even though it was not allowed before."
Narrated by Said bin Jubair - 2.83
When Qais bin Sad Al-Ansari, who used to carry the flag of the Prophet, intended to perform Hajj, he combed his hair.
Narrated by Thalaba bin Abi Malik Qurazi - 4.218
Anas bin Malik said, "As if I say a cloud of dust swirling up in the lane of Bani Ghanim." Musa added, "That was caused by the procession of Gabriel."
Narrated by Humaid bin Hilal - 4.437
When 'Umar embraced Islam, all the (disbelieving) people gathered around his home and said, "'Umar has embraced Islam." At that time I was still a boy and was on the roof of my house. There came a man wearing a cloak of Dibaj (i.e. a kind of silk), and said, " 'Umar has embraced Islam. Nobody can harm him for I am his protector." I then saw the people going away from 'Umar and asked who the man was, and they said, "Al-'As bin Wail."
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar - 5.205
That was Mughith, the slave of Bani so-and-so, i.e., Barira's husband as if I am now looking at him following her (Barira) along the streets of Medina.
Narrated by Ibn Abbas - 7.204
that he had seen Um Kulthum, the daughter of Allah's Apostle , wearing a red silk garment.
Narrated by Anas bin Malik – 7.733
During the lifetime of the Prophet I built a house with my own hands so that it might protect me from the rain and shade me from the sun; and none of Allah's creatures assisted me in building it.
Narrated by Ibn Umar - 8.315
It is clear that such reports just cannot be classed as the Messenger of Allah’s Tradition. Whatever the original reason for their inclusion in the book, to maintain that rejection of even one, any one, report of Bokhari & renders one a Disbeliever, is the height of ignorance.
IV – Against Natural Laws of the Universe
Sahih Bokhari contains certain report which go against laws of Nature functioning in our Universe. It is impossible to assert their validity in the face of criticism from non-Muslims. Even among Muslims, the scientific-minded do not accept such unrealistic reports, although they are scared into silence under threats of decrees of Disbelief by religious leaders. Certainly, that is no solution to the problem. Allah’s definition of the Convinced includes having a critical approach even to Allah’s word. The Quran contains hundreds of verses advocating rationality. The Messenger of Allah was told to say:
‘Say: My approach is to invite to Allah’s way on the basis of rationality. So do those who follow me.’
Therefore, how can we accept the ignorant and illogical arguments of some religious leaders?
Let us look at some more examples of such reports which numbers 114 in Bokhari.
The sun eclipsed and the Prophet got up, being afraid that it might be the Hour (i.e. Day of Judgment). He went to the Mosque and offered the prayer with the longest Qiyam, bowing and prostration that I had ever seen him doing. Then he said, "These signs which Allah sends do not occur because of the life or death of somebody, but Allah makes His worshipers afraid by them. So when you see anything thereof, proceed to remember Allah, invoke Him and ask for His forgiveness."
Narrated by Abu Musa - 2.167
Even a child knows why the Sun is eclipsed!
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "whoever desires an expansion in his sustenance and age, should keep good relations with his kith and kin."
Narrated by Anas bin Malik - 3.281
The Prophet said, "While a man was riding a cow, it turned towards him and said, 'I have not been created for this purpose (i.e. carrying), I have been created for sloughing." The Prophet added, "I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar believe in the story." The Prophet went on, "A wolf caught a sheep, and when the shepherd chased it, the wolf said, 'Who will be its guard on the day of wild beasts, when there will be no shepherd for it except me?' "After narrating it, the Prophet said, "I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar too believe it." Abu Salama (a sub-narrator) said, "Abu Bakr and 'Umar were not present then."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 3.517
Allah's Apostle said, "You (i.e. Muslims) will fight with the Jews till some of them will hide behind stones. The stones will (betray them) saying, 'O 'Abdullah (i.e. slave of Allah)! There is a Jew hiding behind me; so kill him.' "
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar - 4.176
The Prophet said, "Fever is from the heat of the (Hell) Fire, so cool it with water."
Narrated by Aisha - 4.485
A bowl of water was brought to the Prophet while he was at Az-Zawra. He placed his hand in it and the water started flowing among his fingers. All the people performed ablution (with that water). Qatada asked Anas, "How many people were you?" Anas replied, "Three hundred or nearly three-hundred."
Narrated by Anas - 4.772
I saw the trace of a wound in Salama's leg. I said to him, "O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?" He said, "This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, 'Salama has been wounded.' Then I went to the Prophet and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice, and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour."
Narrated by Yazid bin Abi Ubaid - 5.517
Allah's Apostle said, "He who eats seven 'Ajwa dates every morning, will not be affected by poison or magic on the day he eats them."
Narrated by Sad - 7.356
Allah's Apostle said, "He who eats seven 'Ajwa dates every morning, will not be affected by poison or magic on the day he eats them."
Narrated by Al Musaiyab - 8.209
Such reports are deemed important as they refer to the Messenger of Allah’s miracles. The issue of miracles demands extensive treatment, but here I present just one verse from the Quran to rebut the argument presented in support of such reports. The translation and explanation is not mine but by late Syed Abul A’ala Moudoodi. Allah says:
“However, if you cannot bear their rebuff, tunnel into the earth or arrange a ladder to the sky if you can, and try to bring them a Sign. If Allah so willed, He would have guided all of them. Therefore, don’t be one of the ignorant!”
(Al-Anaa’m : 35 )
When the Messenger of Allah, after having worked in futility for so long to bring the people onto the right path, felt the need for a miracle, he was answered in this verse. He is advised to be patient and follow Allah’s scheme of work with diligence. If He so wanted, Allah would have employed miracles. But He knows that it is not the proper way to bring about that special moral intellectual and social revolution you (the Messenger of Allah) have been entrusted with. However, if your patience is wearing their and you believe they need the jolt of a visual miracle, try yourself – dig the earth or ascend to heavens – to obtain a suitable miracle. But don’t rely on Me for a miracle because it has no place in My scheme of things.”
That is, if the objective was to force mankind onto the right path, there would be no need for the gradual struggle and development of Allah’s scheme of work. Allah can do it in a flash but He doesn’t want to do it that way. He wants to present the Truth, with rationale, to people who have freedom of choice. Those who accept should become better human beings than the Disbelievers. Then they should employ their better argumentation, higher goal, better philosophy of life and moral character to pull others, and achieve the objective of establishing Allah’s system after constant struggle and natural evolution of this program. Allah will guide them and help them with whatever they deserve. But if someone desires that Allah the Truth down people’s throats to establish His system, they are mistaken. This modus operandi is against Allah’s way which treats Men as a responsible being, free to choose his way as he is created with the potential of being positive or negative.
(Tafheem al Quran, Vol. 1, pp. 535-536)
Mr. Moudoodi is deceased. So, people from his party may respond to the query that, as Moudoodi has sought to prove the Messenger of Allah’s miracles in his book, Tafheem al Quran, what made Allah change His way?
Such contradictions are the natural result of ignoring the Quran’s general stance.
V - Reports that may be the Messenger of
Some reports in Bokhari appear to have come from the Messenger of Allah. No one has the authority to decide if something has indeed come from the Messenger of Allah. However, with the Quran as the ultimate standard, it is possible to reject a report attributed to him because no action of his could have been against the Quranic teachings. The reports which comply with the Quranic criteria may have come from him but we can never be sure. Such reports number 112. Some examples:
The Prophet said, "A Muslim is the one who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands. And a Muhajir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allah has forbidden."
Narrated by Abdullah bin Amr - 1.9
The Prophet said, "No doubt, it is better for a person to take a rope and proceed in the morning to the mountains and cut the wood and then sell it, and eat from this income and give alms from it than to ask others for something."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 2.558
The Prophet said, "Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)"
Narrated by Abu Huraira – 3.127
The Prophet said, "When the people of Ash'ari tribe ran short of food during the holy battles, or the food of their families in Medina ran short, they would collect all their remaining food in one sheet and then distribute it among themselves equally by measuring it with a bowl. So, these people are from me, and I am from them."
Narrated by Abu Musa – 3.666
During some of the ghazawat of the Prophet a woman was found killed. Allah's Apostle disapproved the killing of women and children.
Narrated by Abdullah - 4.257
The Prophet said, "The best among you (Muslims) are those who learn the Qur'an and teach it."
Narrated by Uthman - 6.545
Allah's Apostle said, "You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it."
Narrated by An Numan bin Bashir – 8.40
The Prophet said, "Truthfulness leads to righteousness, and righteousness leads to Paradise. And a man keeps on telling the truth until he becomes a truthful person. Falsehood leads to Al-Fajur (i.e. wickedness, evil-doing), and Al-Fajur (wickedness) leads to the (Hell) Fire, and a man may keep on telling lies till he is written before Allah, a liar."
Narrated by Abdullah - 8.116
The Prophet said, "Riches does not mean, having a great amount of property, but riches is self-contentment."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 8.453
Abu Bakra wrote to his son who was in Sijistan: "Do not judge between two persons when you are angry, for I heard the Prophet saying, 'A judge should not judge between two persons while he is in an angry mood.' "
Narrated by Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakra - 9.272
VI - Reports which are Historical Accounts
Such reports cannot be classed as the Messenger of Allah’s Tradition. They are merely accounts of events. We are in no way obliged to behave in the way of these stories. What the Muslims are required to do is follow the Quran.
There are 94 reports in this category. Some examples:
Once the Prophet wrote a letter or had an idea of writing a letter. The Prophet was told that they (rulers) would not read letters unless they were sealed. So the Prophet got a silver ring made with "Muhammad Allah's Apostle" engraved on it. As if I were just observing its white glitter in the hand of the Prophet.
Narrated by Anas bin Malik – 1.65
Sahl bin Sa'd As-Sa'idi, was asked by the people, "With what was the wound of the Prophet treated? Sahl replied, "None remains among the people living who knows that better than I. 'Ah used to bring water in his shield and Fatima used to wash the blood off his face. Then straw mat was burnt and the wound was filled with it."
Narrated by Abu Hazim - 1.244
(The brother of the wife of Allah's Apostle. Juwaira bint Al-Harith) When Allah's Apostle died, he did not leave any Dirham or Dinar (i.e. money), a slave or a slave woman or anything else except his white mule, his arms and a piece of land which he had given in charity .
Narrated by Amr bin Harith - 4.2
We used to take part in holy battles with the Prophet by providing the people with water and serving them and bringing the killed and the wounded back to Medina.
Narrated by Ar Rabibint Muauwadh - 4.134
That he participated in a ghazwa (holy battle) in the company of Allah's Apostle. Midday came upon them while they were in a valley having many thorny trees. The people dispersed to rest in the shade of the trees. The Prophet rested under a tree, hung his sword on it, and then slept. Then he woke up to find near to him, a man whose presence he had not noticed before. The Prophet said, "This (man) took my sword (out of its scabbard) and said, 'Who will save you from me.' I replied, 'Allah.' So, he put the sword back into its scabbard, and you see him sitting here." Anyhow, the Prophet did not punish him. (See Hadith No. 158)
Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah - 4.162
While I was walking with the Prophet who was wearing a Najrani outer garment with a thick hem, a bedouin came upon the Prophet and pulled his garment so violently that I could recognize the impress of the hem of the garment on his shoulder, caused by the violence of his pull. Then the bedouin said, "Order for me something from Allah's fortune which you have." The Prophet turned to him and smiled, and ordered that a gift be given to him.
Narrated by Anas bin Malik - 4.377
That he asked 'Abdullah bin Busr (i.e. the companion of the Prophet), "Did you see the Prophet when he was old?" He said, "He had a few white hairs between the lower lip and the chin."
Narrated by Hariz bin Uthman - 4.746
(the wife of the Prophet) When Allah's Apostle died, he was covered with a Hibra Burd (green square decorated garment).
Narrated by Aisha - 7.705
The Prophet got a ring made for himself and said, "I have got a ring made (for myself) and engraved a certain engraving on it so none of you should get such an engraving on his ring." I saw the glitter of the ring on his little finger.
Narrated by Anas - 7.763
I served the Prophet for ten years, and he never said to me, "Uf" (a minor harsh word denoting impatience) and never blamed me by saying, "Why did you do so or why didn't you do so?"
Narrated by Anas - 8.64
VII - Reports which tarnish the Messenger of Allah’s
Certain reports in Bokhari, if accepted as authentic, portray the Messenger of Allah in a very bad light. How such reports got included in the Hadith compilations is a mystery. The best approach is to ignore them as inauthentic. But it is strange that some religious leaders try to interpret them in a way to soften their blow so that the sanctity of these reports is not affected. Strange is the attitude of these fans of the Messenger of Allah who let his image get tarnished but do not like to see the Hadith compilers (who were definitely no better than the Messenger of Allah) proven wrong. It really is the question of their survival. Without these reports, they have no justification for existence in a Muslim society. There were no religious leaders in the time of the Messenger of Allah and the righteous caliphs. These reports date from the era of autocratic rule when it all began.
The anti-Islam propaganda is never based upon the Quran except perhaps that it is the personal work of the Messenger of Allah. It all springs from the Muslim Literature of history and Tradition.
Bokhari contains 67 reports which mutilate the Messenger of Allah’s moral and ethical character. Many are downright sexually embarrassing. I do not propose to list those in this book as they are not worthy of our respectable female readers. Some examples which are not sexually explicit are as follows:
Anas said, "Some people of 'Ukl or 'Uraina tribe came to Medina and its climate did not suit them. So the Prophet ordered them to go to the herd of (Milch) camels and to drink their milk and urine (as a medicine). So they went as directed and after they became healthy, they killed the shepherd of the Prophet and drove away all the camels. The news reached the Prophet early in the morning and he sent (men) in their pursuit and they were captured and brought at noon. He then ordered to cut their hands and feet (and it was done), and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron, They were put in 'Al-Harra' and when they asked for water, no water was given to them." Abu Qilaba said, "Those people committed theft and murder, became infidels after embracing Islam and fought against Allah and His Apostle ."
Narrated by Abu Qilaba – 1.234
Aisha the wife of the Prophet said, "I used to sleep in front o Allah's Apostle and my legs were opposite his Qibla and in prostration he pushed my legs and I withdrew then and when he stood, I stretched them.' 'Aisha added, "In those days the houses were without lights."
Narrated by Abu Salama - 1.379
Allah Apostle prayed while I was lying like a dead body on his family bed between him and his Qibla.
Narrated by Aisha - 1.380 – Narrated by Urwa - 1.381
Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hand my soul is I was about to order for collecting firewood (fuel) and then order someone to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer and then order someone to lead the prayer then I would go from behind and burn the houses of men who did not present themselves for the (compulsory congregational) prayer. By Him, in Whose Hands my soul is, if anyone of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat or two (small) pieces of meat present in between two ribs, he would have turned up for the 'Isha' prayer.'
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 1.617
I wrote a letter to Nafi and Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that the Prophet had suddenly attacked Bani Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives; the Prophet got Juwairiya on that day. Nafi said that Ibn 'Umar had told him the above narration and that Ibn 'Umar was in that army.
Narrated by Ibn Aun - 3.717
VIII - Reports which tarnish the Image of the
Messenger of Allah’s Companions
Allah has pronounced the companions of the Messenger of Allah ‘the true Convinced’, but Bokhari paints them as riddled with flaws, in many ways resembling ordinary people of today. Whatever Bokhari may report, Allah’s testimony holds supreme. This category contains 31 reports. Some examples:
bn 'Abbas said, "When the ailment of the Prophet became worse, he said, 'Bring for me (writing) paper and I will write for you a statement after which you will not go astray.' But 'Umar said, 'The Prophet is seriously ill, and we have got Allah's Book with us and that is sufficient for us.' But the companions of the Prophet differed about this and there was a hue and cry. On that the Prophet said to them, 'Go away (and leave me alone). It is not right that you should quarrel in front of me." Ibn 'Abbas came out saying, "It was most unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise.
Narrated by Ubaidullah bin Abdullah - 1.114
(mother of the believers) After the death of Allah 's Apostle Fatima the daughter of Allah's Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is sadaqa (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Apostle.
She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allah's Apostle which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Medina (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said, "I will not leave anything Allah's Apostle used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet's tradition, then I would go astray." (Later on) Umar gave the Prophet's property (of sadaqa) at Medina to 'Ali and 'Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the sadaqa which Allah's Apostle used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler." (Az-Zuhrl said, "They have been managed in this way till today.")
Narrated by Aisah - 4.325
The Prophet sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to the tribe of Jadhima and Khalid invited them to Islam but they could not express themselves by saying, "Aslamna (i.e. we have embraced Islam)," but they started saying "Saba'na! Saba'na (i.e. we have come out of one religion to another)." Khalid kept on killing (some of) them and taking (some of) them as captives and gave every one of us his captive. When there came the day then Khalid ordered that each man (i.e. Muslim soldier) should kill his captive, I said, "By Allah, I will not kill my captive, and none of my companions will kill his captive." When we reached the Prophet, we mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the Prophet raised both his hands and said twice, "O Allah! I am free from what Khalid has done."
Narrated by Salim’s father - 5.628
Abdullah bin Az-Zubair said that a group of riders belonging to Banu Tamim came to the Prophet, Abu Bakr said (to the Prophet), "Appoint Al-Qa'qa bin Mabad bin Zurara as (their) ruler." 'Umar said (to the Prophet). "No! But appoint Al-Aqra bin Habis." Thereupon Abu Bakr said (to 'Umar). "You just wanted to oppose me." 'Umar replied. "I did not want to oppose you." So both of them argued so much that their voices became louder, and then the following Divine Verses were revealed in that connection: "O you who believe ! Do not be forward in the presence of Allah and His Apostle..." (till the end of Verse)...(49.1)
Narrated by Ibn Abi Mulaika - 5.653
IX – About the Messengers of Allah
Eight reports in Bokhari contain actions, events and utterances about the Messenger of Allahs not befitting their status. It is a pity that the Tradition-loving try hard to suitably interpret these reports instead of rejecting them.
The Prophet said, 'The (people of) Bani Israel used to take bath naked (all together) looking at each other. The Prophet Moses used to take a bath alone. They said, 'By Allah! Nothing prevents Moses from taking a bath with us except that he has a scrotal hernia.' So once Moses went out to take a bath and put his clothes over a stone and then that stone ran away with his clothes. Moses followed that stone saying, "My clothes, O stone! My clothes, O stone! till the people of Bani Israel saw him and said, 'By Allah, Moses has got no defect in his body. Moses took his clothes and began to beat the stone." Abu Huraira added, "By Allah! There are still six or seven marks present on the stone from that excessive beating."
Abu Huraira Narrated: The Prophet said, "When the Prophet Job (Aiyub) was taking a bath naked, golden locusts began to fall on him. Job started collecting them in his clothes. His Lord addressed him, 'O Job! Haven't I given you enough so that you are not in need of them.' Job replied, 'Yes!' By Your Honor (power)! But I cannot dispense with Your Blessings.' "
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 1.277
The angel of death was sent to Moses and when he went to him, Moses slapped him severely, spoiling one of his eyes. The angel went back to his Lord, and said, "You sent me to a slave who does not want to die." Allah restored his eye and said, "Go back and tell him (i.e. Moses) to place his hand over the back of an ox, for he will be allowed to live for a number of years equal to the number of hairs coming under his hand." (So the angel came to him and told him the same). Then Moses asked, "O my Lord! What will be then?" He said, "Death will be then." He said, "(Let it be) now." He asked Allah that He bring him near the Sacred Land at a distance of a stone's throw. Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) said, "Were I there I would show you the grave of Moses by the way near the red sand hill."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 2.423
Abraham did not tell a lie except on three occasions. Twice for the sake of Allah when he said, "I am sick," and he said, "(I have not done this but) the big idol has done it." The (third was) that while Abraham and Sarah (his wife) were going (on a journey) they passed by (the territory of) a tyrant. Someone said to the tyrant, "This man (i.e. Abraham) is accompanied by a very charming lady." So, he sent for Abraham and asked him about Sarah saying, "Who is this lady?" Abraham said, "She is my sister." Abraham went to Sarah and said, "O Sarah! There are no believers on the surface of the earth except you and I. This man asked me about you and I have told him that you are my sister, so don't contradict my statement." The tyrant then called Sarah and when she went to him, he tried to take hold of her with his hand, but (his hand got stiff and) he was confounded. He asked Sarah. "Pray to Allah for me, and I shall not harm you." So Sarah asked Allah to cure him and he got cured. He tried to take hold of her for the second time, but (his hand got as stiff as or stiffer than before and) was more confounded. He again requested Sarah, "Pray to Allah for me, and I will not harm you." Sarah asked Allah again and he became alright. He then called one of his guards (who had brought her) and said, "You have not brought me a human being but have brought me a devil." The tyrant then gave Hajar as a girl-servant to Sarah. Sarah came back (to Abraham) while he was praying. Abraham, gesturing with his hand, asked, "What has happened?" She replied, "Allah has spoiled the evil plot of the infidel (or immoral person) and gave me Hajar for service." (Abu Huraira then addressed his listeners saying, "That (Hajar) was your mother, O Bani Ma-is-Sama (i.e. the Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael, Hajar's son)."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 4.578
Allah's Apostle said, "Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam, 'You are Adam whose mistake expelled you from Paradise.' Adam said to him, 'You are Moses whom Allah selected as His Messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly; yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my creation?' " Allah's Apostle said twice, "So, Adam overpowered Moses."
Narrated by Abu Huraira - 4.621
I fail to imagine the motive behind this fabrication. I do not see any good intention to talk like that about Messengers of Allahs. To make matters worse, this nonsense is claimed to have come from the Messenger of Allah.
X – Some Verses from the Quran
There are TWO reports in Bokhari, which if accepted as authentic, negate all arguments about the perseverance of the Quran. It loses its claim of staying unchanged to this day. I wonder what explanation the Tradition-loving may give for such reports:
While I was going with the Prophet through the ruins of Medina and he was reclining on a date-palm leaf stalk, some Jews passed by. Some of them said to the others: Ask him (the Prophet) about the spirit. Some of them said that they should not ask him that question as he might give a reply which would displease them. But some of them insisted on asking, and so one of them stood up and asked, "O Abul-Qasim! What is the spirit?" The Prophet remained quiet. I thought he was being inspired Divinely. So I stayed till that state of the Prophet (while being inspired) was over. The Prophet then said, "And they ask you (O Muhammad) concerning the spirit --Say: The spirit -- its knowledge is with my Lord. And of knowledge you (mankind) have been given only a little)." (17.85)
Narrated by Abdullah - 1.217
The translator has left the following sentence from the report.
A’amesh reports that our recitation contains the word ‘wa ma ootoo’ (and not ‘ma ooteitum’)
The companions of 'Abdullah (bin Mas'ud) came to Abu Darda', (and before they arrived at his home), he looked for them and found them. Then he asked them, "Who among you can recite (Qur'an) as 'Abdullah recites it?" They replied, "All of us." He asked, "Who among you knows it by heart?" They pointed at 'Alqama. Then he asked Alqama, "How did you hear 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud reciting Surat Al-Lail (The Night)?" Alqama recited:
"By the male and the female." Abu Ad-Darda said, "I testify that I heard the Prophet reciting it likewise, but these people want me to recite it:
"And by Him Who created male and female," but by Allah, I will not follow them."
Narrated by Ibrahim - 6.468
If Abu al Dard is correct, the Quran is definitely wrong.
The reports mentioned up to now may be attributed to various companions of the Messenger of Allah. The question is: How did such reports find then way into Bokhari, and indeed other compilations, in view of the roaring claims of strict criteria of Selection ? Also how can some reports be authentic and some others, by the same source, unreliable?
XI – Miscellaneous
1. Bokhari also contains reports contradictory to each other. Some examples:
You offer a prayer which I did not see being offered by Allah's Apostle when we were in his company and he certainly had forbidden it (i.e. two Rakat after the Asr prayer).
Narrated by Muawiya - 1.561
Whenever the Prophet come to me after the 'Asr prayer, he always prayed two Rakat.
Narrated by Aisah - 1.567
In support of both of the above contradictory reports, one can find for each three more in Bokhari.
It has been reported by three different sources that:
Allah's Apostle said, "Good will remain (as a permanent quality) in the foreheads of horses till the Day of Resurrection."
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar, Ursa bin AL GA, Urwa bin Al Bariqi, 4.102, 103, 104
In the same chapter, reports No. 4.110 & 4.111 state that:
heard the Prophet saying. "Evil omen is in three things: The horse, the woman and the house."
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar
Allah's Apostle said "If there is any evil omen in anything, then it is in the woman, the horse and the house."
Narrated by Sahl bin Sad Saidi
I, for one, have simply failed to comprehend the meaning or purpose of this report. The existence of contradictory reports disproves all claims of thorough scrutiny at the time of compiling.
2- The classification into various chapters of Bokhari appears strange at best. Some reports in a chapter bear no connection with the title – and there are many instances of this. That makes reference quite difficult and one has to rely on memory or marking the book.
I must repeat that the purpose of this work is to make an ordinary reader realize what Bokhari contains. Secondly, anyone casting a critical eye on these compilations is quickly branded as a ‘rejecter of Hadith’ ( a term not very clearly defined). This is generally taken as opposition to the Messenger of Allah. Emotions are drummed up. What justification is there for someone to be branded without due investigation?
I do not reject an utterance of the Messenger of Allah. If I do it, I will not remain a Muslim. All I say is that a given report is not acceptable as the Messenger of Allah’s utterance, because the Quran testifies that he never followed anything but the Quran. This is not Rejection of Hadith.
However, to attribute something anti-Quranic to the Messenger of Allah is a grave offense.