|Kitab-ul-Taqdeer (Book of Destiny)|
- IF ……….. THEN
- (In the Quran)
Earlier in this book, LAW has been defined as: If…. Then….. always. If (you do this) then (this will) always (happen).
Law has been familiarly categorized as judicial, physical
(natural) and permanent values. Judicial laws show no intrinsic interdependence. Take, for the sake of argument, a law stating a term in prison or a fine for committing an act of theft. If a particular judiciary doesn’t consider theft a crime, or the culprit is not apprehended, the act of theft will fail to produce a result. This interdependence between an act and its result is the reason for different societies being able to have different changeable laws.
Social norms are no different. Physical (natural) laws on the
other hand, display an intrinsic interdependence between an act and its result. No social or judicial ruling can ever affect the result (burns, for example) of an act (putting one’s hand in fire). These laws are simply there in Nature. They are permanent, and come true to the definition of law at the head of this chapter.
The third category of laws (permanent values) i. e., if
you don’t improve the lot of the poor and needy, you’ll be destroyed – give the result of an act just like the first two classes. But they are different in many respects. They are permanent as well as natural (established by Allah). These divine laws are give to Man through Revelation. They have a twofold result --- betterment of society as well as development of personality (of individuals). One can accept the validity of permanent values only if one accepts the existence of human personality. It follows that establishing these values in a human society depends upon Imaan (acceptance of human personality and revelation of these divine values). The Quran has highlighted the social as well as personal advantages of permanent values. For instance, fornication is considered to be a violation of value resulting in degeration of personality; (25/68) at the same time it has been proposed as a social criminal act worthy of punishment. (100 lashes in public).
Law & its Philosophy
The Quran tells us that both ‘the book’ (law) and
hikma (the why of it) are divinely given. No law can be effective without its philosophy (the ‘then’ in the original definition of If … then …. Always). This is precisely what happen in anarchic situations in human societies. Similarly when
Din & Mazhab
(The system & Religion)
‘alDin’ (an effective legal system) is reduced to ‘Mazhab’ (or religion ----- a set of rituals), laws
become ineffective – they bear no results. People go through the motions to ‘please’ God. But in ‘alDin’ laws are effective in that they bear results and the ‘then’ of them is always manifested in this world as well as in the hereafter. The ‘hikma’ of these laws makes it easy to check if actions are according to the laws. ‘Mazhab’ has not such provision – people do certain acts and leave the result to Allah, not knowing if they will bear results or not. Consequently, there is nothing (concrete results) to check them against. The Quran refers to such fruitless actions as (حبطت أعمالهم) : ‘their actions were wasted’.
Let me summarize what we have discussed so far. I apologize for any repetition it may bring, but I wish to drive here a very important point. The very definition of Law (If … then …. Always) indicates freedom of choice. The choice of ‘If’ can only be give to one with a free will. We cannot, for example say to a blind person: ‘If you don’t look where you go, you will trip over and fall’. The question of ‘looking’ for the blind doesn’t arise. The Quran uses the expression ‘ف00000إن’ (If … then) as well as (لعلكم) (so that). Let us cite some examples from the Quran which illustrate Man’s free will.
Some Examples from the Quran :
1. Conviction and good deeds will definitely get you into ‘Paradise’ (2/25).
2. If you follow My instructions, you will be free of fear and depression (2/38).
If you spend your wealth in Allah’s way, you will be free of fear and depression (2/262, 2/274, 2/277, 6/48, 46/13).
3. If you follow the Book in parts and deny some other parts of it, you will have a miserable life here and get severely punished in the hereafter (2/85).
4. If these people had accepted and adopted a careful life, they would have received the best return (2/103).
5. If you remember, and not forget, My laws, I will give you an increase in respect and status (2/152).
6. It would have been better for the people of the Book if they had accepted the Quran (3/109).
7. If you are Momin (convinced), you will triumph (3/138).
8. If you die, or are killed, in Allah’s way, you will get His protection and care (3/156).
9. No one will overpower you if you have Allah’s support (3/159). Allah’s support is given to one who rises to work for His ‘din’ (22/40), (47/7).
10. If you accept and lead a careful life, you will be rewarded highly (3/178).
11. If you keep away from blunders, your flaws will be removed (4/31).
12. If the people of the Book’ has accepted and led a careful life, We would have removed their troubles (5/65). If they had followed Allah’s Word, they would have had plentiful food (5/66). They would have enjoyed bounties of all universe (7/96).
13. Whoever accepts, and remains fair, gets peace and is guided towards prosperity (6/83).
14. If you lead a careful life, you will have distinctive life (8/29).
15. If twenty fighters (in Allah’s way) are steadfast, you will triumph over two hundred of enemy – it is when you have the same supply and provision of arms. If you are less equipped, you will overcome an enemy double in number than you (8/65-66).
16. ‘Imaan’ (Acceptance by conviction) and ‘taqwaa’ (watchful life) are harbinger of good news of good life here and in the hereafter. This is Allah’s firm law and will never change (10/62-64).
17. Whoever strives in Our Way (to uphold alDin), We will show them the way (29/69).
18. Whoever is steadfast after ‘Imaan’, will have angels descending with good news of being free of fear and depression here and in the hereafter (41/30-31).
19. ‘Imaan’ and good deeds result in inheritance of earth (political sovereignty) (24/55).
20. If you shy away from Allah’s laws, you will be replaced by another people (47/38; 9/38).
21. Whoever shuns Our laws will face a shortage of livelihood.
22. If you are thankful (use Allah’s bounties according to His laws) you will prosper. Otherwise, you will be punished (14/7).
23. Whoever gives to others and leads a careful life will have an easy life (92/6-10).
24. Be steadfast, galvanized and lead a watchful life, so that you succeed (3/199).
25. The children of Israel were punished with misery and oppression because they had denied and rejected Allah’s laws.
The above examples should vividly display that Allah has given free will to Man to choose from two possibilities. Man is free to choose one of the two paths but is NOT free to choose the destination (result). This fact (law) is unchangeable. This permanent law (value) is taqdeer --- the natural result of Man’s actions. We can say, therefore, that: When Allah decrees, and tells us its result as well, that is a permanent law.
Islam is Al-Din which has laws. The word ‘din’ literally means law. Allah’s laws – permanent values – are unchangeable and are given in Allah’s Book, the Quran.