|Kitab-ul-Taqdeer (Book of Destiny)|
Sermons on the occasions of Friday’s congressional prayer, the two Eids (end of Ramadan’s fasting month and Al-Adha to commemorate Ibrahim’s sacrifice on Haj, the annual pilgrimage to Makkah), the Muslim marriage, and others, often recite a verse which is traditionally translated thus:
‘Whoever is guided by Allah cannot go astray, and whoever is misguided by Allah cannot be guided by anyone –‘.
In the light of this translation, please consider the following:
(i) In the story of Fall of Man, Allah told mankind not to worry because:
Chain of Divine Guidance
“Then I will keep sending guidance from Me.
Whoever follows My guidance shall have no fear or frustrated depression. And those who reject and deny My signs will be the people with permanent abode in hellfire – ‘ (2/38-39).
(ii) True to His promise, Allah started the chain of His messengers to all peoples of the world.
(iii) The messengers of Allah would bring divine guidance through Revelation to mankind with (the option): ‘So whoever wishes can accept it, and whoever so desires, may reject it (18/29).
These clear verses stand in stark contrast to the interpretation mentioned above of the verse at the head of this chapter. Obviously, it necessitates a deep examination of the situation from the Quranic perspective.
First of all, 2/38 means that Man may discover the physical universe through
Allah alone is the source of guidance
Scientific study (observation and
experimentation) but laws for the social universe can only be obtained through divine guidance (Revelation). This fact has been highlighted at various places in the Quran:
(i) Sura Taha: “Our Preserver is the One who has created all things, then guided them (to their destination)” - (20/50).
(ii) Sura Al-Aala: “The One who created, then gave (all things their) balance, then set standards (for them), and then guided (them to those laws)” – (87/2-3).
(iii) Sura Al-Lail: “Certainly, it is Our responsibility to guide” (92/12).
(iv) Sura Aal-e-Imran: “Tell (them) the (only real) guidance is from Allah” – (3/72); also (2/120 and 6/71).
Furthermore, the physical universe intrinsically has the divine guidance but mankind must obtain it from without. The modus operandi was for Allah to hand His guidance through Revelation to His messengers who then passed it on to men --- ‘so that, after the messengers, men cannot blame Allah’ – (4/165); ‘Or people may not say “If Allah had guided us, we would have been law-abiding: “ – (13/7). A messenger’s responsibility was to ‘deliver whatever you have received from your Preserver’ (5/67). ‘Whatever received from the Preserver’ was the Book. The last and final Book of Allah is the Quran which is a guide for all humanity: ‘By this (book) Allah guides, whoever follows it, on to the right path and brings people out of darkness into light and guides them onto the straight, right way’ – (5/16). Thus the divine guidance would be delivered to men with: ‘So whoever is guided, does so for their own selves, and whoever decides to go the wrong way shall bear the consequences’ – (10/108); also (39/41).
This brings us, in brief, to the following
i) Allah would hand over His guidance to His Messengers through Revelation.
ii) The messengers would pass it on to men with the option of either accepting or rejecting it.
As to (i) above, a would-be messenger would be chosen unilaterally by
Messengers are chosen by Allah
Allah alone according to His plan of
things (مشيئة ). “And Allah would select, by His plan, whoever He wanted” --- (2/105); (3/73); “Only Allah knows who was to be His messenger” – (6/125). The would-be agent had no hand in, or even prior knowledge of, this duty (42/52). This position was bestowed, not earned (16/11).
Therefore, it is clear that divine guidance was revealed to men specially by Allah’s method of guiding men and exclusively chosen by Allah. A messenger could never get it from any other source --- “If my Preserver had not guided me, I would have been one of the misguided ones” - (6/78; 6/81). Ordinary men, too, should say, ‘We would never have found the right path if Allah hadn’t guided us; (because) “our Preserver’s messengers came with the Truth –“ (7/43). In other words, “Whoever is guided by Allah (through His revelation to His messengers) is on the right path –“ (7/178). The ‘right path’ is adopting His system contained in His book (the Quran) – Sura Zumer: “Allah sent down (to men) a book with the best of contents. That is His guidance (for) whoever wishes to be guided; and whoever is misguided (by his own choice) can never be guided (by anything or anyone else)!” – (39/23).
- * - * - * - * - * - * - * -
(1) People who can be guided
It has already been stated that, with the exception of Man, everything in the universe follows a pattern of existence pre-decided by Allah. Man has the option to follow the pattern of life suggested by Allah or reject it. This choice should be exercised in the light of knowledge and reason and adopted entirely independently of any physical, intellectual or psychological compulsion. This is called Iman (conviction). Acceptance of this Message through conviction (rational reasoning) is a pre-requisite for benefiting from it (obtaining guidance).
This code of guidance (the Quran) can thus lead mankind through life progressively – “Their Preserver guides them because of their conviction” (10/9). This fact is stated very early in the Quran (Sura Baqara): “This is the book which
An objection to ‘هدى للمتقين’ (guidance for ‘The guided’)
is free of all doubts (and anxieties). It has guidance for the ‘متقين’ (conventionally
translated as ‘the guided’). This has given rise to some confusion. It is objected that a ‘guided’ person doesn’t really need the guidance offered by the Quran. This dilemma stems from the conventional (non-Quranic) meaning of the term muttaqi (متقي).
People go through life broadly in two ways. Some have no specific
Meaning of muttaqi
purpose of life in mind. With no ultimate goal, they are
driven by individual selfish interests based upon lowly emotions. They are not mindful of pitfalls in that path. On the other hand, there are those people who have a final destination of life set for themselves. They necessarily wish to avoid dangerous sharp turns to make their journey smooth and productive. Such are the men referred to as muttaqeen. Thus “هدى للمتقين” means a guidance for those who wish to avoid the dangers and pitfalls of the path of life. This has been reiterated several times in the Quran: Sura Anaam: “People who are convinced (by this message) and keep their conviction free of wrong (ideas and deeds) are guided” (by it) - (6/83); Sura Tauba: “Just following the conventional ‘good deeds’ of one’s society doesn’t bring guidance. It can be obtained by being convinced and following this message (the Quran)” - (9/19-20); Sura Baqara: “Allah’s Book guides by pointing out the right (correct) in case of disputes” - (2/213) - and also: “This book lits the dark path of life and leads the way- ….. to safety” (2/257) – and again: “People who steadfastly face problems, can get guidance (from it)” – (2/157) - the Quran terms it as ‘holding on to the rope of Allah’ – (3/101, 3/102, 4/176). In other words, if one adheres to Allah’s laws against all odds, prosperity and progress open their arms – (4/65-68).
The Quran has summarized the above in Sura Ankaboot: “Those (people) who strive for Us get guided by Us and Our prosperous path” – (26/69); and also: “Allah increases (the facilities) for those who follow the right path --” (19/76).
(2) People who cannot be Guided
Allah created Man, set an ultimate destination of his life’s journey, guided him to the right path, complete with signposts. Someone who chooses not to read the signposts, or ignores them, cannot be expected to reach his destination. For instance: (i) Sura Younis: “Can you (O Messenger!) guide those who choose to
Those who walk blindly
be blind and not see?” – (10/43). Elsewhere:
“O Messenger! You cannot make the dead listen (to you) nor those who play deaf; nor can you guide the blind. You can only deliver the message to those who are willing to be convinced and accept it” – (27/80-81); (30/52-53). Also: “One cannot talk to those who plug their ears shut” – (31/7). Sura Faater: “The blind and the sighted cannot be the same just as darkness and light are not; sunshine and shade are not the same as not are the dead and the living. O Messenger! You cannot talk to the dead in their graves. Only those will listen who want to” – (35/19-22).
(ii) Sura Nahal: “O Messenger! Despite your strong desire, how can Allah guide those who choose to go the wrong way?” – (16/37). Also: “How can Allah guide those who do not accept the truth of His message?” (16/104); “those who reject it and persuade others to de likewise” – (4/107).
(iii) As elaborated earlier, Allah has bestowed Man with various faculties and potentialities which are neither good nor evil in their essence. They are neutral till they are put to use one way or the other. Human emotions are no different.
Those who follow their emotional drives
Employed under Allah’s
guidance, they can work wonders; unbridled, they wreak havoc. Sura Qasas: “O Messenger! These people don’t answer your call because they want to follow their lowly drives. Just imagine, who can be more misguided than the one who follows his drives without the guidance from Allah? The wrong-doers cannot benefit from the divine message” – (28/50); (30/29).
(vi) The majority of men go through life with unquestioning conformity. If the leader is on the wrong path, the led can never hope to find the right one. Sura An’aam
warns against this conformist attitude of the misled masses
as it leads away from the path of Allah – (6/117; 6/20); (5/77).
(v) People who are selective, i. e., keep switching to and away from Allah’s path
cannot hope to reach their destination. It is shirk in Quranic
terms and it leads to going far away from one’s goal – (4/116).
Conviction, in practical terms, means adopting the Book of Allah in its
totality. Being selective, or paying just lip service to Allah’s
message also keeps one away from one’s destination – (4/60).
(vi) One who is not really convinced of the validity of the Message but complacently pretends to join the convinced, all the while trying to break away, cannot reach the ultimate destination. Such people are hypocrites (منافق) - (4/142-143).
(vii) A transgressor (فاسق) is one who breaks the pattern of life required by
Allah’s message and loses its protective and preservant
environment, much in the way of a decaying fruit. Such people – the transgressors (فاسقين) – cannot hope to be guided by Allah (5/108); (2/26); (9/24). Sura Saff: “When they transgress, Allah (‘s Law of Returns) turns their hearts away; Allah doesn’t guide transgressors” -- (61/5).
(viii) Success of any project depends upon doing everything properly and appropriately. If things are not where they ought to be, it is termed as Zulm –“Allah
(‘s law) doesn’t guide the Zaalemeen (the unfair)” –(2/258). This
is repeated frequently in the Quran.
Finally, here is the verse which very clearly says it all: “(Just think) How can Allah guide the people who reject His message after having accepted it? They had observed that the Messenger has brought the Truth very clearly; Allah doesn’t guide the unfair people!” – (3/85).
It is important to note that the expression ‘How can Allah guide such people?’ does not refer to an eternally hopeless situation. As long as a group keeps on the wrong path, they cannot hope to arrive at their destination. But when they decide to look for, and choose, Allah’s path, their chances of success increase – (O Messenger) keep reminding them through the Quran that they are following a path of calamities (so that no one is doomed just because nobody invited them to the right path)” – (6/70).
(3) Allah has sealed their hearts
ختم الله على قلوبهم
To understand verses such as the one above, one must be mindful of the following points:
(i) To benefit from Allah’s guidance, men must think with a cool, rational,
unbiased and analytical mind. An unreceptive mind just
cannot hope to gain anything from Allah’s message – it is a practical impossibility.
(ii) ‘If you close your eyes, you are in the dark’. The Quran illustrates this in a variety of ways, some of which have already been mentioned. Consequences are natural results of Man’s own actions. Allah attributes them to Himself because they occur according to His Law of Returns. Let us now examine the verses containing such phrases as ‘Allah seals their hearts’.
(i) Among the opening verses of Sura Baqara are (conventionally translated as): “It does not matter to the Rejecters whether you (O Messenger) warn them or not. They will never accept (the Message). Allah has sealed their hearts and ears and covered their eyes. They are in for a big punishment’ – (2/6-7). Obviously, such a translation is as confusing as ‘a guide for the guided’. It naturally leads to the dilemma. If the non-Muslims are not going to accept the Message, why bother? Moreover, it is all done by Allah, so why punish them? The Quran is free of such conflicts because:
i. a: People who wish to embark on a safe journey to life’s destination may, and do, get to the heart of this divine guidance and, therefore, are successful --- (2/2-5).
i. b: But those who resolve not to listen to, or care about the Message, cannot benefit from it. They close their eyes and ‘ignore the Right Book in favor of wrong books’ (2/18); they (play and) become dumb, deaf and blind and just don’t heed the calls for a return to the right path – (2/16); they are like sheep, mindlessly following the one in the front. They reject suggestions to apply reason and logic to review their stance with: ‘but we will follow the path on which we found our ancestors (even if they were wrong!) (2/170).
They are just like sheep ignoring their shepherd – “dumb, deaf, blind and mindless” – (2/171). Such are the ones whose hearts get sealed – “They don’t listen to your invitation to guidance; you can see them staring at you but they are not looking!” -- (7/198); “It is the same to such people if you call them or say nothing!” (7/193).
(ii) “These people stubbornly stick to their decision of rejecting the Message” (10/74); “that is how We seal the hearts of such people” (10/74); “they boast about their ‘draped hearts’ but, actually, Allah has sealed their hearts because of their mentality of rejection” (40/155).
(iii) Then there are those who reject the Message without any reasoning – that is how Allah seals the hearts of the arrogantly stubborn (40/35). They sit to hear the Messenger absent-mindedly and later have to ask other attendees as to what the Messenger was saying. “Such are the people whose hearts are sealed by Allah because they follow their own selfish drives” (47/16). They arrogantly make fun of the warnings of the Messenger dismissing his call as ‘nothing but stories from the past --- “they are the ones whose hearts get wrapped (in ignorance) and their ears plugged shut” (6/25). They very rudely dismiss the call of the Messenger with: “Our hearts are draped and our ears plugged shut, so your call doesn’t get through to us; there is a barrier between you and us; therefore, you do what you have to do while we do what we have to” (41/5), “don’t you worry about us!” Such are the people whose hearts get draped and their ears close shut” (14/57). They not only reject the Message themselves but also try to dissuade others, too: “That is how Allah seals the hearts of those who do not know!” (30/58-59). “Thus Allah seals the hearts of those who do not employ knowledge and reason – an invisible barrier is put up between such people and the Quran! (17/45-46).
(iv) Then there are those who pay lip-service to the cause of the Message but have not intention of really committing themselves. The Quran refers to them as
- منافقين - (the hypocrites). Sura Tauba refers to their evading
tactics to avoid having to enter a battlefield in the service of Allah – these are ones who have “Their hearts sealed by Allah because they don’t know (the Truth)” – (9/93; 9/86-87; 47/20-23).
It is important to note that these Quranic pronouncements are by no means restricted in time. Of course, they refer to the hypocrites at the time but they contain eternal truths. People who just say that they accept the Message, but don’t really do it from the bottom of their hearts, are not Momin (convinced): “Have you noticed the one who chooses as his god his own lowly drives? He goes astray despite having knowledge (and reason). (Consequently,) Allah seals his ears and heart, and covers his eyes closed. He can’t find guidance anywhere but with Allah” – (45/23). “Say, who can guide the one who thus rejects Allah’s guidance? Such people ignore their future for shot-term benefits, which blind them. That’s how their ears and hearts are sealed” – (16/106-108).
(v) Sura Younis – verse (36/7-10) are conventionally translated thus:
“Allah’s work has come true for many of them. They will never accepts the Call. We have put high collars (of slavery) on them so that their chins are forced up. We have put up barriers in front of, as well as behind, them. We have blinded them by putting a drape over them. Therefore, it doesn’t matter to them whether you warn them or not. They will never accept (the Message).
We have already discussed this verse except the opening part (لقد حق…. لايؤمنون)
which is said to confound readers because it supports the concept of pre-destiny
Allah’s Word Comes True
(‘they will never accept the Message’). The
confusion arises from the basically erroneous concept of compulsion. The words ‘Allah’s word has come true’ should be interpreted as: Allah’s law is that Truth does not reveal itself to those who do not employ knowledge and reason to look for it. That is why these people will not accept the Message. “Confusion comes to the ones who do not use their intellect” – (10/100). Their condition proves that Allah’s law (word) is true. “Surely, warnings can benefit only the one who follows Allah’s advice and is afraid (watchful) of the hitherto unrealized consequences of (man’s wrong action which result according to the Law of Returns of) Allah” – (36/11).
Sura A’raaf: (Conventionally translated) “And We have created a lot of Jinns (1) and Men for Hell! Supports the concept of pre-destiny? No. The rest of the
Created for Hell
verse clears the confusion: “They possess hearts but don’t
use them for thinking, they have eyes but don’t use them to look, they have ears but don’t use them to hear. They are the ones who are like animals, nay, even worse – they are ignorant (and non-caring about the purpose of life) “ – (7/179).
Elsewhere in the Quran: When such people enter Hell, the overseer will inquire as to their crimes. They will respond: “If only we had listened (to Allah’s messengers) or used our brains, we wouldn’t have been among the people of Hell!” – (67/10).
Sura Mohammed: “Don’t they ponder over the Quran? Have their hearts locked themselves shut?” – (47/24). Please note the very important suffix - ها- (of them) with the word - اقفال - (locks) in this verse. It very clearly shows that men seal
Their Hearts Lock Themselves
their own hearts shut to calls of reason.
(1) ‘Jinn’ refers to rural people of the desert. For details, please see my work Iblees-o-Adam or Lughaat-al-Quran.
Elsewhere, the same idea is put in other words: “When they went crooked, Allah crooked their hearts” (His law of Returns did it) – (61/5; 51/9; 9/127).
Finally, let me quote a verse from Sura Al-Tatfeef which clarifies the phrase “Allah has sealed their hearts” beyond any shadow of a doubt. It says:
Men’s own deeds act as result
“No, it’s not like that! But (the reality is that)
their hearts get rusted because of their own deeds! (83/14).
(4) - Whoever So wishes, accept and
whoever so wishes, reject
The human privilege of ‘freedom of choice’ has been previously dealt with in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to have a special brief recap of the Quran’s stance on (mis) Guidance:
One of the basic principles of the Quranic system is: “there is no compulsion in the matter of ‘ad-Deen’ (adopting a philosophy of life) as guidance has been shown very clearly apart from mis-guidance. So, whoever rejects all else, and accepts Allah’s way, will be adhering to a strong support which will never fail him …….” (2/256).
Man’s freedom of choice is not curbed even by Allah himself. The Messenger used to worry about the future of the people and anxiously wanted them to accept. He was told by Allah that He would have created Man bound to natural law like the rest of the universe. But, it was not His plan (مشيئة). So, people cannot be forced into conviction. It is entirely upto them to accept or reject the Message (10/99). “Tell them that your Preserver has sent down the Truth to you. Whoever chooses the right path, shall benefit; whoever chooses the wrong path, shall bear its consequences. You have not been appointed a foreman over them to force them into submission!” (10/108). Every convinced person (مؤمن) should be aware of this fact (that Allah would have created men to willy-nilly follow His path of if it was His plan (مشيئة) – (11/118; 13/31; 16/9; 16/93; 32/13; 42/13). Even the Messenger’s genuine desire for someone to accept the Message doesn’t change the principle of free choice --- (28/56). Allah has given Man free will. Therefore, the Messenger should deliver the Message to people and say: “Whoever so wishes, accept; whoever so wishes, reject” – (18/29). “We created Man, gave him listening and sight, and showed him the way. Now, it is upto men to accept or reject it” – (76/3). “The Quran is a reminder. So, whoever wishes to, may recall (the Truth through it)” – (80/11-12). “We have showed him both the (good and bad) ways. So, whoever so wishes, should take his Preserver’s way” – (73/19; also: 25/57).
Allah gave Man eyes and provided light (the Quran) to see very clearly both the (right and wrong) paths --- “Whoever looks, will have benefits for his own self; whoever (chooses to) be blind, will bear the consequences of that action ---“ (6/105). “And no one shall carry someone’s load – “ (17/15). “No one shall carry someone else’s load; whoever takes the right path, shall have no fear or frustration ---“ (2/38; 20/123). “If you are on the right course, the wrong-doer won’t be able to hurt you. They will only hurt themselves --- “ (5/105).
The polytheist assert that they are what they are due to Allah’s will was responded by: “Allah does not misguide anyone” – (6/149, 150); 16/35,36; 43/20). “They misguide themselves” – (6/141). The fact is that just as Allah doesn’t misguide anyone, He doesn’t force anyone onto the right course against their will (16/37).
Allah doesn’t but religious leaders do misguide people as they are themselves misguided” – (5/77; 6/145). “Thus the misguided become a group
supporting each other’s wrong views” (7/202). “In this way, their
leader lead them to an undesirable place - Hell” (14/28, 29).
Therefore, it is Man who does it. Allah doesn’t force the right or the wrong on anyone. It is entirely Man’s own free choice (من شاء). (18/29)
من يشاء - Whoever Wants or
Whomever He wants
We have already discussed (من يشاء) in its general sense. Let us now examine it in the specific sense of (mis) guidance. The discussion so far has established that:
(i) (Mis) guidance depends entirely on Man’s free wil;
(ii) The right path (Allah’s way) can be taken by using knowledge and reason.
Now, consider the relevant Quranic verses.
Sura Baqara: Originally, mankind was one fraternity. Later, differences and clashes occurred among them. Allah sent down His guidance through His messengers, so “Allah guides onto the right path the one who so desires” – (2/213). The messengers were responsible for delivering the message (5/99; 3/19), not forcing men onto the right path --- “It is not your duty to put him on the right path. Allah guides only the one who so wishes” – (2/273 & 28/56). “Allah calls to the land of safety. So, whoever so desires is guided onto the right path” --- (10/25). This call was made by the messengers (14/4), on the basis of clear laws and principles revealed to them for the guidance of anyone who wanted it (22/16). This message of Allah has been called ‘noor’ (light) in (24/35, 24/40 and 24/60). Sura Zumr refers to it as ‘the book sent down by Allah’ (39/23). Sura Faater talks about the inequality between the blind and the sighted, the dead and the living, light and darkness, and sunshine and shade, and then --- “O Messenger! You can’t make the ‘dead’ hear you. Allah makes listening only for those who want to” – (35/19-22). “Whoever wishes to listen” means: “He guides to Him (only) the one who turns to Him” – (13/27). Contrarily, one who does not want to cannot benefit from Allah’s guidance.
That, therefore, is Allah’s plan (مشيئة) for (mis) guidance. Sura An’aam: “And those who deny Our laws are (like) deaf and dumb in the dark. Whoever so desires, Allah misguides him; and the one who so wishes, finds himself on the right path” --- (6/39). Sura Ibrahim explains the right and the wrong concepts of life by the example of good and bad trees; people who accept the right concept of life get benefits here and in the hereafter; “the unfair are misguided (according to Allah’s law); He does whatever He wishes (His discretion in formulating laws is unquestionable) – “ (14/27).
Sura Faater talks about those who view their wrong deeds as right and wish to adhere to their erroneous, self-deceptive ways. Such people cannot gain access to guidance, success and prosperity. Allah said to the Messenger: “Don’t torture yourself with woe over their plight. Allah (‘s law) is aware of their (erroneous) deeds” – (35/8).
As pointed out earlier in this book, on the advent of Islam, some suggested using miracles to convince the dissenters. The Quran responded by saying that it was not Allah’s plan. Allah wants people to accept the Message of their own free will by employing knowledge and reason – “No one shall be convinced until it is according to Allah’s wish (plan), and (sadly) so many of the people are ignorant” – (6/112).
Sura Mudasser announces that success and prosperity come to those who accept the Message from the bottom of their hearts. A confused, half-hearted acceptance does not guarantee on the guidance the right path – “in this way, Allah’s plan misleads whoever so wishes and guides whoever so desires” – (74/31).
That is the interpretation of verses like (7/155): “O Allah! You misguide or guide according to your Message – “ (7/155).
Sura Shoura said to the Messenger: You have been appointed messenger without your wanting it or working for it; you guide people (by this message) on to the right path; but your brief is just to guide, not fore people into it; “We guide by this message those among our creatures (men) who wish to be guided” – (42/32).
Finally, I present from Sura Nahal a verse which is the final word on the matter. “If Allah had so desired, He would have created all of you as one group; but He misleads or guides whoever wishes so --- and surely you will be held responsible for your deeds!” – (16/93). Obviously, Man has the freedom of choice; hence his accountability. This is precisely the argument presented by Iblees when he denied his responsibility for disobedience: “You (Allah) have misguided me!” – (7/16; 15/39). That is the stance of Devil not Man!
Hopefully, I have by now doubtlessly established my view on the matter: It is erroneous to take the position that Allah (mis) guides people at will and whimsically. Therefore, one must not take a Quranic verse in isolation to study it. The Quran should be studied under topics --- keeping in view all the verses dealing with a certain subject and interpreting not translating them in the light of the overall message of the Book. Let me briefly remind the reader once again that: wherever the Quran, in regards to human social system, mentions Allah the doer, it really mean that occurrences take place according to His laws and plan. (مشيئة) For instance, have another look at some verses:
(i) Sura Beni Israel: (17/97-98)
Conventional Translation: “Only he can be guided whom Allah guides; one who is misled by Allah has not hope but He; On the Judgment Day, We shall raise him face down, deaf, dumb and blind. Hell will be the abode for such people. That is their lot because they denied Our signs.
Suggested Interpretation: Whoever accepts the validity of Allah’s laws is guided; whoever refuses to accept them just cannot find the right path (because guidance to the right path is available nowhere else). Such arrogant and ignorant decisions keep men misguided and hence in a state of hell.
Also see verses (7/178; 18/7 and 39/37) in this regard.
In the Quran, we come across “Allah’s Most Beautiful Names” (الأسماء الحسنى). These are attributes of Allah mentioned in the Book. My reader may have come across the well-known practice of displaying 99 names of Allah. One of those is Al-Muddil (the Mis-leader). The Quran has not used this particular name. It appears
Al-Muddil - one of Allah’s Names
to have been derived from verses
containing expressions like (يضل) (He misleads). We have discussed the interpretation of such verses. In view of that, my personal opinion is that Allah must not be called (المضل) (the Misleader). He is (الهادي) the Guide. The two attributes are contradictory to each other. The Quran uses the term for Devil. Sura Qasas records the event when Moses punched a Copt dead, and said: ‘This is Devil’s doing. Surely, he is (Man’s) adversary and clear misleader – (28/15).
Also: ‘The Devil wants to mislead them (people) far away (from the right path) – (4/60).
Similarly, some others of the traditional 99 names of Allah should be scraped from the list, e.g., (المذل) (the Degrader) and (الضار) (the Harmer - one who harms).
(ii) Sura Al-An’aam: (6/39)
Conventional Translation (of a part of the verse) is: “Allah mis-leads whomever He desires, and guides whomever He wishes onto the right path”.
Suggested Interpretation: ‘(Mis) Guidance occurs according to Allah’s law and plan (مشيئة). It is men’s choice to adopt the right or the wrong path”.
The plan (مشيئة) is mentioned in the earlier part of the verse: “Those who deny our Message remain (in the dark because they choose to be) deaf and dumb”.
(iii) Sura Ar-Rome: (30/29)
Conventional Translation: “Who can guide the one misled by Allah?
Suggested Interpretation: (The earlier part of the verse explains it) “These unfair (people) so ignorantly keep following their own animalistic drives. Now, who can guide such people?
(vi) Sura Tauba: “It is not befitting for Allah to mislead people after having sent them His guidance for a watchful life” (9/115)
(v) Sura An’aam: (6/126)
Conventional Translation: “When Allah intends to guide someone He opens his heart for Islam; when He decides to mislead someone, He squeezes his heart narrow as if he was having a steep rise into the skies”
Suggested Interpretation: The verse before this one refers to those who keep finding fault with the Message; they get a consequential heavy punishment. This follows by the verse above (7/126) which goes on to say: “That is how Truth is not revealed to those who do not accept the Message.
Sura An-Nahal talks about someone who accepts the Message and later returns to (كفر) a state of denial and is punished for it. Please note that this does not apply to someone who accepts Islam sincerely and is forced into an act of denial. This is about one who “opens heart for denial “ – (16/106).
Therefore, Man alone opens his heart for Islam or Kufr. If he accepts Islam, he benefits. Otherwise, he is in a loss. “That is guidance of Allah by this Message for whoever so wishes; and one who is misled (by Allah’s law & plan) cannot get guidance --- “ (39/22-23)/
“One who wants to remain misled is not (forcibly) guided by Allah ---“ (16/37) and:
“Those who struggle and strive for Us, We guide them to our ways – “ (29/69). This is the established system of the Quran.