|by G. A. Parwez
Before Partition, we asserted that the Muslims of the
sub-continent had their distinct culture and way of life and needed a
separate homeland where they could live and develop according to their
own Ideology. The demand was conceded and Pakistan was established. The
biggest Islamic State appeared on the map of the world.
- Idea ignored.
But what thereafter? Pakistanis forgot completely that
their State was created to give shape to their own Ideology. During the
struggle for Pakistan our slogan of Islamic Ideology was not defined: It
was not very necessary to do so then. After the establishment of
Pakistan, it became absolutely essential that the slogan should be
determined and defined categorically because otherwise even the first
step towards achieving the objective of Pakistan could not he taken. But
we ignored the objective, and sordid gains near at hand took the better
- Constituent Assembly.
We had a Constituent Assembly from the day Pakistan
came into being. It was the duty of this body to define our Ideology,
and then, on the basis of the definition, to formulate our Constitution.
It did neither. Apparently the members of the Constituent Assembly were
themselves not clear about the Ideology, and the pity of it is that they
made no attempt, none whatsoever, to get together material which could
help clarify their minds on the subject. May be it served their
individual interests to drag on the constitution-making as long as they
Years rolled on, one after another, without producing a constitution.
Every one talked of Islamic Ideology. We were engrossed in following
alien ways bequeathed by the past. It took nine long years for the
Constituent Assembly to give the country a constitution, a constitution
of many compromises which adorned itself with the dignified name of
"Islamic" but in fact had little to do with the fundamentals of Islam,
except in their breach. The diseased constitution of 1956 met the fate
it richly deserved and was abrogated in October 1958.
- Meaning of Ideology.
The question before us is "What is Islamic
Ideology is, as you know, a philosophical term meaning
the ‘Science of Ideas’. ‘Idea’ is again a subtle and very comprehensive
term. It is unnecessary for our present purpose to go into the details
of the term. Suffice it to say that ‘Idea’ means a basic concept, and
that the basic concepts on which any ‘system’ is built constitutes its
‘Ideology’. Since Ideology pre-supposes the existence of a system, the
question arises whether Islam is a ‘system’.
- Mazhab and Deen.
Yes, Islam is a system. Islam is not a
‘religion’ in the ordinary sense of the word. Religion is the
English equivalent for the Arabic word Mazhah, which does not
occur even once in the whole of the Holy Quran. The Quran has, instead,
used the word Addeen for Islam, which means a particular way of
- Man-made God.
The basic idea of Mazhah (religion) is that God,
the god created by human imagination, is sitting somewhere away from the
universe. He is like a king or a dictator. If someone incurs the king’s
wrath, he is doomed and is subjected to all kinds of afflictions. The
only way out is to humor the king by reciting his praises, flattering
him, making offerings to him, seeking the intervention of those near
about him, and so on. The moment the king is brought round, all the
troubles vanish and are replaced by munificence, rich gifts, awards of
honor, inclusion among the king’s trustworthies, and so on. Since the
god created by man’s imagination is on the pattern of a king, the
devotees of the god try to propitiate him by ‘means’ similar to those
adopted for humoring a king. The ‘means’ so adopted are given the name
of religious ceremonies or rituals.
According to this conception of God, man does not
require to lead a gregarious or collective life. His relationship with
his God is essentially an individual and private affair. In lonely
seclusion he seeks through worship God’s forgiveness and bounties, and
having done that, proceeds according to his sweet will, to engage in
matters material and mundane. He is a religious person.
Religion in this sense came about at an early stage in
human development when man was still ignorant of the "how and why" of
the working of the universe or the threatening forces of nature
lightning, clouds, floods, fire, disease, etc. and quite unable to hold
his own against them. In that stage man trembled at the sight of
everything more powerful than himself and in trying to appease it, made
obeisance in complete surrender and submission.
- Revealed Cod.
As I have already said, religion is based on a
conception of God which is the creation of man’s own imagination. There
is another conception of God which has been vouchsafed to man through
Revelation. According to the revealed conception, God is a Being who
controls the entire universe and moves it on to its final destiny
in accordance with certain inviolable laws. According to these laws,
everything in the universe from its initial stage, grows, develops, and,
in time, attains its full stature, like the seed which grows gradually
into a huge tree. Man is no exception. There are God’s inviolable laws
which govern man’s development also. According to the revealed
conception of God and that conception of God alone can be true which He
has given Himself the relationship between man and God comes about
through the laws which He has designed for man’s development. To
understand the Essence of God; and to know what He is, is beyond the
scope of human intellect. What we can understand, however, are His laws
which pertain to our development. The laws have been preserved in the
Holy Quran. Those who follow them develop and go ahead: those who
contravene them are deprived of growth like the seed which happens to be
buried under hard soil.
- Rule of Law.
A person living alone by himself needs no rules or
regulations to guide his conduct. Rules become necessary when people
live together. Far away from habitation in a jungle, it makes little
difference whether one keeps to the right or to the left. In a city,
however, it does make a difference because if the rule of the road is violated,
untoward consequences follow forthwith. The revealed laws help mankind
as a whole to live together amicably and peacefully. People living
together, not as they please, but according to some law, become an
organized society, bound together by a system or an order. The order,
which the Holy Quran envisages, is termed Addeen, that is, a
system for living collectively according to the revealed laws of
I may add here that the Quranic term for the principle
according to which one should lead his life is Kalema qualified
with the word tayyib. The meaning of tayyib generally is
pleasant. but when used to qualify a tree, it refers to a tree which bears
exquisitely fine fruit. Says the Holy Quran:
"Kalerna-e-tayvib is like a shajare tavvib,
the roots of which hold the soil deep and firm, whose branches
spread out in the sky high and wide and which
bears fruit perpetually in conformity with God’s laws" (14/24).
Islamic Ideology, therefore, consists of never-changing
principles or concepts of life capable of evolving, unhampered by the
limitation of Time and Space, a universal social order for the good of
humanity at large.
- Human co-operation.
The comparison of Islamic Ideology with a tree has
another noteworthy aspect. To ensure its growth, a seed should be
healthy and capable of taking root, growing, blossoming and bearing
fruit. Then, it is necessary that it should be taken care of in
matters like preparation of soil, manuring, watering, supplying heat and
light, protecting it against seasonal changes and ravages of insects and
animals. The Holy Quran points to this aspect in its own inimitable way.
It says that the healthy concept of life Ideology or kaIema-e-tayyiba
revealed by God has the capacity to rise high towards Him, that is,
it can attain the heights which He has destined for it.
But it cannot rise high by itself: it is man’s co-operation which
helps it rise. In Quranic parlance, Ideology makes up what we call Faith
(Eemaan) and the means to give the Ideology a practical shape are
termed A ‘maal-e-Saaleha. It follows, therefore, the
Kalema-e-tayyiba or Ideology forms the objective of the Islamic
Order and A‘maale Saaleha constitute the programme for attaining
the objective. In the present context you can say that Ideology provides
the ‘Objectives Resolution’ of an Islamic State, its ‘Constitution’
gives political form to the Resolution and its laws prescribe the
programme for helping the people attain their destiny.
There are two concepts of life. One is that man like
other animals, is nothing but his physical body which lives according to
the physical laws of nature and, after a time, according to the same
laws, its mechanism ceases to function, bringing about its death with
which the individual concerned comes to a final end. This is the
mechanistic concept of life, and the social order which is based thereon
aims at catering for the physical well-being of the people living within
the State. The better the provision for the individual needs in
abundance and with ease, the better the State.
This concept, in the view of the Holy Quran, degrades
man to the animal level and is Kufr.
"And those who reject (the Quranic concept of life)
avail of material things and eat and drink as do the animals, their
abode is hell (whose fire reduces the dignity of man to ashes)"
According to the other concept of life, man is
something more than his physical body; he has, besides a physical
body, a Personality or Self, which no one else in the animal
world possesses. Human Personality is neither the outcome of material
evolution nor is subject to physical laws. Every babe on birth gets
Personality as a gift from God, whether born in a king’s palace or
beggar’s hut, in the house of a Brahmin or an out-cast, or of Muslim or
non-Muslim parents. The gift is, however, not in a developed form, but
in a potential form with realizable possibilities. For the development
of human Personality there are God-given laws, as there are laws for the
growth of man’s body. If Personality develops according to its laws, it
begins to manifest, within human limits what are, in their highest and
limitless form, called Divine Attributes. A developed Personality does
not disintegrate with the death of man’s body, but lives on and on
through further evolutionary stages of life. The purpose of man’s life
is the development of his Personality.
Gentlemen, you may be wondering that there is nothing
new about what I have said. It is the same old story of ‘spiritual
advancement’ narrated by sponsors of say Hinduism or Christianity. No,
it is not the same thing; the two are entirely different. The sponsors
of ‘spiritual advancement’ to whatever religion they may belong,
- that man’s body, nay the whole material world, is a hurdle in the
way of spiritual advancement and must be cleared before any advance is
- that, for spiritual advancement man should discard the world, kill
desires, hate and cast away material easements; and
- that, therefore, it is essential that man should live
individually, in seclusion, and, in order to get near God, should get
away farther and farther from fellow-men.
- Development of Personality.
social order functioning in this manner becomes
an Islamic State, which makes itself responsible. I repeat
responsible, to see that every citizen is provided
equitably with the basic needs of life as well as the means and
opportunities for the development of his Personality.
State not an end in itself.
The Holy Quran, on the other hand, says that for the
development of human Personality man should:
- gain control over the forces of the physical world and keep open
his achievements, according to the laws of God, for the good and
well-being of mankind at large;
- should have all that is required to maintain life, since, without
the egg-shell the embryo can never develop into a chicken; and
- should lead a corporate life and establish a social order in which
the physical needs of each and every individual shall be fully met and
he shall have full opportunity and means for the development of his
According to the Holy Quran, State is not an end in
itself; it is a means to an end, the end being the development of man’s
Personality, which it is impossible to achieve except in an
independent country. Therefore, the justification for the establishment
of an Islamic State, nay, for its very existence, is that it makes
itself responsible for the development of every citizen, his
Personality as well as his body. The State which fails to fulfil this
responsibility cannot be called an Islamic State.
Relationship between individual and State.
The foregoing may lead one to conclude that in the
Quranic Social Order responsibilities, one and all, devolve on the
State, leaving little or nothing for the individual to do. Let us
consider the point for a while. A glance at the history of man s social
life is enough to show that from the very beginning the one problem
which has baffled man has been that of the relationship between the
State and the individual. Man has devised several social orders in
which, when stress was laid on society or State, the individuality of
the people went by the board, and when individuality received
consideration, the State got disintegrated. The Holy Quran has given a
social order in which both get stronger and firmer day by day, man’s
individuality in integration and the State in cohesion and solidarity.
The secret of Quranic Social Order lies in the unique relationship
between the individual and the State which the Holy Quran has expounded.
A few introductory remarks seem necessary to get a thorough grasp of the
Obedience to God only.
The Holy Quran has declared in unequivocal terms that
an individual, a society or a State has no right to claim obedience from
any person, since obedience is due to God and God only. But we cannot
see God nor have we ever heard His voice. How can then one obey Him? The
answer is that obedience is not to God personally but to the laws He has
revealed in the Quran. For securing obedience to law, however, it
is necessary to have some properly constituted Enforcing Agency. The
agency for enforcing God’s laws is the Islamic State and obedience to
God means, in practice, obedience to the State which enforces His
Fulfillment of God’s responsibilities.
But says God to the Islamic State since you take
obedience from the people in My name, you should give them what I have
promised to give, that is, fulfil the responsibilities which I have
assumed in respect of mankind. If you fail to fulfil the
responsibilities to people, you lose your right to their obedience. The
two go together. Therefore, in the Quranic Social Order, the
relationship between the individual and the State is a two-sided affair
the individual obeys the laws of God through the Agency of the State and
the State honors the promises God has made to man.
The relationship comes about through a mutual contract
which the Holy Quran mentions in brief but very comprehensive terms.
Says the Quran:
"Allah has bought horn the believers their lives and
what they have of material things so that He may give them Jannah"
The meaning of the verse is that the people entrust
their lives and property to the State which undertakes to enforce the
laws of God, and, in return, the State gives them Jannah. You
know that there is a Jannah which is to come after a man’s death,
but the Holy Quran uses the term Jannah also for the Social Order
established here, on this earth, in which every individual is assured,
and he is actually provided, all that is required for the development of
his body and his Personality, and is free from want, anxiety and fear.
According to the contract referred to above, therefore, the individual
in offering obedience to the laws of God surrenders, without any
compensation, his life and property to the Islamic State, and in return
the State assumes full responsibility for providing him the basic
necessities of physical life and all the means required for the
development of his Personality. By this arrangement, the individual.
even after surrendering his life and property to the State, preserves
his Individuality or Self, nay helps it develop and gain in strength day
by day, and on the other hand, the State gets established on firm
and solid grounds. The laws of God through their observance by the
individual as well as the State, ensure both the above
It is obvious that the State will be unable to
discharge its huge responsibilities unless the sources of sustenance and
means of production are placed under its control. There is nothing
startling about it. After the people surrender willfully their lives and
all else to the State, the question of individuals owning anything
ceases to exist. The means of production pass on quietly to the control
of the State to enable it to fulfil its responsibilities of providing
the people with the necessities of life and means for development of
their Personality. But mind you, by this control over means of
production the Islamic State does not become at par with a Communist
State. There is a world of difference between the two. A Communistic
State, or for the matter of that, any Secular State, has no inviolable
principles to guide or control its activities. An Islamic State is,
however, bound irrevocably by inviolable principles given by the Holy
There are, as stated above, laws governing the growth
of the human body and laws for the development of his Personality. The
Holy Quran calls the latter laws Kalemaat Uliah and says they are
inviolable. Kalemaat is the plural of kalema, a term
which, as already stated, the Quran uses for Ideology. Therefore,
Kalemaat UIlah would mean the concepts of life which.
taken together, make up Islamic Ideology and admit of no change. In the
words of the Holy Quran:
"The Kaleima revealed by the Nourisher has been
made complete in truth and justice. There is none who can change His
concepts" (6 116).
In other words Islamic concepts of life (ideology) are
complete as well as unchangeable. They constitute Inviolable
Principles or Permanent Values and it is through observing them
that the development and integration of human Personality comes about.
Since the provision of the means of’ this development is the essential
responsibility of the Islamic State, its entire activity will be guided
throughout by the God-given Inviolable Principles or Permanent Values.
Observance of Permanent Values results, in the life of an individual, in
showing up, within human limits, Divine attributes. For instance, God is
Aleem (all knowing) and Khabeer (fully informed). A
developing Personality will imbibe these qualities as far as may be
possible within human limits, and become Aleeni and Khabeer
within the sphere of human activities. Similarly, in consonance with
God’s attributes of Robubiyyat and Razzaqiyyat a
developing Personality must cherish the feeling for helping others in
their development and in giving them preference over itself. The
criterion for judging whether a Personality is or is not developing, is
the extent to which it manifests those attributes, limited of course to
man’s restricted sphere.
- State symbol of Divine Attributes.
Similarly when a State bases itself and its programme
on Permanent Values it will manifest Divine Attributes much more
prominently than an individual. The distinguishing feature of an Islamic
State is that, within due limits, it brings out a manifestation of
Divine attributes here, there and everywhere throughout its activities.
It means that
- the administration in an Islamic State is conducted on the basis
of Permanent Values:
- The State becomes a symbol of Divine Attributes guaranteeing
fulfillment of God’s promises: and
- that the individual is busy always striving hard to imbibe in
himself through the Islamic Society, Divine attributes as best as he
There is little difficulty in determining whether a
State is or is not Islamic, since the Holy Quran has dealt at great
length with Permanent Values as well as Divine
The final position in a nutshell is:
- that Islamic Ideology is another name for Permanent Values or
Inviolable Principles elaborated in the Holy Quran;
- that an Islamic State is established for the sole purpose of
introducing Permanent Values in life;
- that the first and foremost duty of an Islamic State is to provide
means for the growth and development of the human body as well as
- that a State is known to be Islamic from its being a symbol of
Divine Attributes detailed in the holy Quran.
Let us now take up some of the Quranic Permanent
Every human being, solely on account of his being a human being,
deserves to he respected.
Says the Holy Quran:
"And verily we have made children of Adam deserving of
The verse makes no distinction between black and white,
poor and opulent, believer and unbeliever, caste or creed, but is of
general application embracing one and all of the human
What distinguishes man from other animals is the gift
which every child gets at birth from God, namely human Personality, The
respect is, in fact, due to human Personality, the basic characteristic
of which is freedom and it is every soul’s freedom that has to be
recognized and honored.
Says the Holy Quran:
"The whole of humanity is one entity" (2/213).
What militates against the oneness of mankind is its
division into groups tribe, party, sect, nation on the men-made basis of
distinctive interests as opposed to the general interest of all.
But it is the good of all which has the capacity to
endure. In the words of the Holy Quran:
"That which benefits humanity as a whole, endures on this
To bring about universal brotherhood of man mere
expressions of good-will, amity and tolerance won’t do; it requires a
dynamic social order, built on the basis of Permanent Values to realize
it. And the first and the
foremost objective which the Quranic Social Order or an Islamic State
has in view, is the interest of the entire humanity and moulding it into
one in-divisible whole.
No individual shall enforce his will on another; all
will obey voluntarily the revealed laws of Allah through the agency of
an Islamic State which undertakes to enforce those laws.
Says the Holy Quran:
"No one whom Allah has given a code of law and authority
to enforce the law and whom He has favored with Revelation. shall tell
people ‘Obey me’ and not Allah, but will say that through obedience to
the Book, which you read and study. You should help nourish one another."
Free is he who hasn’t to toe another’s line but obeys,
out of his own free will, laws of Allah and such of man-made laws as
conform to those laws.
Man shall live a life of cooperation with
fellow men and not a secluded life.
The Quranic injunction is
"Co-operate in what will add to life’s richness and
help safeguard God’s laws, and co-operate not in slackening or going
beyond those laws" (5/2).
Co-operation will, however, be in matters which help
man’s development. Willing cooperation by one helps him integrate his
Personality; working under duress disintegrates it. Unhealthy social
order not only condones duress but encourages it by applying the lever
of want. Islamic Social Order, on the other hand, makes itself
responsible to see that no citizen is stranded by non-fulfillment of
wants and is thereby exposed to duress.
The Holy Book says:
"Verily Allah ordains justice" (16/90).
Honoring of Rights is justice. Take what is your due
and nothing more: give with full measure what is due to others: where
there are more than one contestant, every one of them should get his due
and nothing less. Justice gives confidence and security. Every citizen
has a right to be provided with work, basic necessities of life and
means of development of his Personality. Islamic Social Order assumes
the three-fold responsibility and discharges it, as best as it can, with
due regard to the inviolable principle of justice.
The Quran ordains:
"Verily Allah ordains justice and restoration of disturbed
Ehsaan is derived from husn which is beauty
or proportion. In nature there is beauty and proportion everywhere: so
it behooves man that his own self as well as things round about him
should not be lop-sided. Proportion might be disturbed here and there.
Islamic Social Order cannot stand disturbance and tries to restore
proportion without delay in accordance with the Inviolable Principle of
Ehsaan. Old age, illness, accident, additions to family, etc.,
strain .the family income. Unless the deficiency is made good in time
suffering must follow. By assuming the responsibility for supplying the
basic needs of citizens an Islamic State is always prepared to make up
the deficiency and to restore the disturbed equilibrium in the life of
the family concerned. The reaction of the State is equally prompt if and
when similar disturbances of proportion might occur in national
The Holy Quran says:
"And they determine their affairs by mutual consultation"
That is, consultation at all levels, in petty affairs
concerning individuals or in matters of national or international
Islamic Social Order is essentially democratic with the
rider that discussions shall always respect the Quranic fundamentals and
never infringes them.
The Holy Quran concerns itself mainly with broad
principles of life and very little with detailed instructions. The
underlying plan is, as explained by the Holy Book itself, that Muslims
in all ages and inhabiting different parts of the world, should be free,
within the ambit of the Quranic fundamentals, to determine details to
suit their particular circumstances.
Islamic State accepts Quranic principles as its basis
and keeping them in view, frames by the method of consultation and
discussion, whatever laws are needed to meet new situations as they
develop from time to time in different ages and localities. Present day
democratic legislatures are bound solely and wholly by the rule of the
majority, which is liable to change with every change in the political
atmosphere. Islamic legislatures, on the other hand, stand on the
bed-rock of Inviolable Quranic Principles and from that firm pedestal
set themselves whole-heartedly to the task of framing laws for serving
the best interests of the people.
Pooling of individual surpluses for the good of all is
a Permanent Value. The Quranic injunction is:
"And keep open what is surplus to needs for us in the way
of Allah" (2/195)
is derived from nafq which means a
tunnel or a covered passage with both ends open. Wealth comes in at one
end, stays inside while it is being used to provide needs of the earner,
but through the other end the surplus remains available for use for
Varying capacities for work result in bigger or smaller
incomes, leaving deficiencies here and surpluses there. Man-made social
orders feel unconcerned or helpless and leave the situation to seek its
own adjustment. The result is misery for many and luxury for a few, the
latter trying always to perpetuate and even enhance the disparity.
Islamic Social Order, on the other hand, tackles the situation boldly
and rationally, pools the surpluses and uses them to bring about social
Says the Holy Quran:
"You are a dynamic society drawn out for the good of
mankind, you enforce the recognized (lawful) and prohibit the
unrecognized (unlawful) and have faith in (the laws of) Allah -
The existence among mankind of a people who will,
subject to the Inviolable Principles of the Holy Quran, champion freedom
of individual will, enforce respect for law, and stop unlawful
activities with a stern hand, is one of the Inviolable Principles.
Brotherhood of the human race is a charming idea. But
it cannot be achieved by verbal professions of high sounding slogans, in
the name of tolerance and religious amity. The effective method for
establishing universal brotherhood of man is that a social order should
be created on the basis of universal principles, that it should adopt
those principles in practical life and that it should then become a
living nucleus for gathering people around and realizing the dream of
oneness of humanity. This dynamic social nucleus will generate
centrifugal forces out of freedom of will and its achievements. It will
recognize no criterion for merit other than what an individual actually
I have cited before you, very briefly indeed, some of
the permanent Values given by the Holy Quran. They should, I hope, help
you form an idea of where and how far the Holy Book would take humanity
in its evolutionary progress.
The considerations set forth before you lead to the
following three-fold conclusion:
Islamic Ideology connotes the sum total of Permanent
Values or Inviolable Principles which have been preserved in their
complete and final form in the Holy Quran.
Islamic State is a state which adopts Quranic Permanent
Values as its ideal.
Islamic Constitution is the document which proclaims the
above ideal and details the plan according to which the edifice of the
State will rise solid and firm on the basis of Quranic Inviolable